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By Clive Holmes

The execution of Charles I in 1649, through the proclamation of a Commonwealth, used to be a rare political occasion. It a sour Civil conflict among parliament and the king, and their overall failure to barter a next peace payment.

Why the king was once defeated and achieved has been a important query in English historical past, being traced again to the Reformation and ahead to the triumph of parliament within the eighteenth century. The previous solutions, even if these of the Victorian narrative historian S.R. Gardiner or of Lawrence Stone's prognosis of a deadly long term rift in English society, despite the fact that, not fulfill, whereas the more recent ones of neighborhood historians and 'revisionists' usually go away readers uncertain as to why the Civil struggle occurred in any respect.

In Why was once Charles I Executed? Clive Holmes provides transparent solutions to 8 key questions on the interval, starting from why the king needed to summon the lengthy Parliament as to if there has been actually an English Revolution.

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Answered by a fatal combination of outright rejection, legalistic niggling, and procrastination. Charles was a king obsessed with order and unity in his realm. Yet his fiscal and religious agenda in the 16305 had brought only confusion and division. In this account, the Scots have been little more than a deus ex machina. Their rebellion obliged Charles's government to impose further financial demands upon already overstrained local officers and resentful taxpayers, causing the system ultimately to seize up.

On 23 October 1642 at Edgehill, Charles, with a force of some 24,000 men, fought a drawn battle with the parliamentary field army of approximately similar size. The nation was fundamentally split into royalists and parliamentarians, Cavaliers and Roundheads. 2 How Did the King Gain Support in Parliament? As the axe fell, the huge crowd of spectators on Tower Hill, whose 'madness and fury' had led the lieutenant of the Tower to fear that his prisoner might be lynched before he reached the block, roared their approval.

Ministers were enjoined to read the Book of Common Prayer service before preaching, and to read it in the prescribed vestments. The laity should be reverent during the services, bowing at the name of Jesus, and following the directions of the Book of Common Prayer concerning posture and gesture. 41 In 1634 Laud moved further to enforce a uniformity of ceremony i the church, issuing instructions that the communion table should normally be placed behind a rail at the east end of the chancel, and that parishioners should be encouraged to come up to the rails to receive communion.

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