Download Unequal Britain : equalities in Britain since 1945 by Pat Thane PDF

By Pat Thane

This ebook probes what equality is and this suggests for either these on the centre and at the margins of British society.


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24 U N E Q UA L B R I TA I N Age 65 in 2040: ● Born 1975 ● Possibly experienced family unemployment in early years ● Left full-time education aged 16–21; 40 per cent attended university, 50 per cent of students female ● Married/partnered/and had children (if any) in 30s ● High mortgage, student debt, unlike previous generations ● Probably skilled white-collar job. Heavy manual labour now a minority experience, but many of the less educated in low-paid, long hours, service employment. Longer hours and higher stress in most occupations than in previous generations ● Projected average life expectancy at age 65: men and women, 85–95, assuming that average standards of health over the lifetime continue to improve.

It had shifted from changing the behaviour of individuals to changing that of organizations. Also in the 1970s, women from minority ethnic groups joined the Women’s Liberation Movement (see Chapter 5) to campaign for gender, as well as racial, equality. Organizations founded during the 1970s and later, such as the Organization of Women of Asian and African Descent, Southall Black Sisters, Brixton Black Women, Liverpool Black Sisters, Baheno Women’s Organization in Leicester, and other groups throughout Wales, Scotland and England, campaigned in particular against immigration restrictions, virginity tests imposed on women arriving in Britain, police brutality and domestic violence, as well as discrimination in employment and other spheres.

This currently disadvantages those who have not worked and paid national insurance contributions continuously for at least 40 years. 44 Under the Pensions Act 2007, from 2007 the number of qualifying years needed to receive a full state pension will fall from 39 for women and 44 for men to 30 for both, which will lessen but not remove the problem; and national insurance credits will be introduced for those with long-term disabilities and caring responsibilities for young children or severely disabled people.

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