By Michael C. Pirrung
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Additional info for The Synthetic Organic Chemist's Companion
The strength of borosilicate glass increases with decreasing temperature, and it can be safely used at cryogenic temperatures. While the foregoing considerations address whether the glass can tolerate the reaction, the complementary consideration is whether the reaction can tolerate the glass. A number of reactions 26 reactions on a small scale—1 to 25 mmol are dependent on the exact properties of the ﬂask surface. The reasons for these observations are rarely established, but they are usually thought to be due to trace levels of acid on the glass from previous reactions or cleaning protocols.
These are no substitute for a carefully planned and executed reaction, however. An integrated manifold combines these functions in one apparatus (Fig. 11). A more sophisticated manifold has dual chambers, one of which is attached to the inert gas source and the other is attached to a vacuum source. 10 A plastic safety shield that can be set up between the reaction and the chemist. Photograph used with permission of Nalge Nunc International Corp. NALGENE® is a registered trademark of Nalge Nunc International Corp.
Of these, hydroﬂuoric acid is the most serious problem. Attack on the glass can occur even when a solution contains only a few parts per million of HF. Other ﬂuoride reagents can attack glass but usually to a lesser extent than HF. These reagents dissolve glass because of the very strong Si–F bonds that are formed. Phosphoric acid and concentrated alkali solutions are not a problem when cold; they only corrode glass at elevated temperatures. Alkali solutions up to 30% by weight can be handled safely at ambient temperature.