By Christon J. Hurst
This quantity specializes in these circumstances whilst benign or even useful relationships among microbes and their hosts opportunistically switch and turn into damaging towards the host. It examines the triggering occasions that could issue into those alterations, resembling aid within the host’s potential for mounting an efficient protecting reaction because of dietary deprivation, coinfections and doubtless sophisticated environmental affects just like the quantities of solar, temperature, and both water or air caliber. the consequences of environmental adjustments will be compounded once they necessitate a actual relocation of species, in flip altering the chance of stumble upon among microbe and host. The switch may also consequence while pathogens, together with virus species, both have converted the opportunist or attacked the host’s protecting traditional microflora. The authors speak about those opportunistic interactions and examine their results in either aquatic in addition to terrestrial ecosystems, highlighting the effect on plant, invertebrate and vertebrate hosts.
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Extra info for The Rasputin Effect: When Commensals and Symbionts Become Parasitic
The syndrome is generally induced when an individual is placed on corticosteroids, although other immunosuppressive conditions such as cancer and transplant chemotherapeutic immunosuppression may also trigger the hyperinfection. A change in diet as well as some chemotherapeutic compounds can serve as a trigger and induce a parasite located in one internal habitat such as the intestine, blood, visceral organ, or muscle to migrate to more sensitive tissue or be released from a cyst or an encapsulation and migrate or replicate.
Dykova´ and Lom 2007). However, when we collected 50 fish from this station and 50 from another station containing tubificids and then maintained them in aquaria in our laboratory and fed them commercial flakes daily, over half the fish from the contaminated location became moribund or died within 2 months. No fish from the other location died or appeared unhealthy. The moribund fish were sectioned or examined fresh and demonstrated the myxosporidian with its 10 by 6 μm spores Fig. 1 Mass infection of the myxosporidian Henneguya gambusi triggered within the skeletal muscle of the western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis, from a location in coastal Mississippi that contains heavy metal contamination.
A symbiont is an organism that uses another organism as a habitat. This chapter discusses the primary associations and associated conflicts involving the terminology. It also provides both differentiation between and conflicting views regarding the interpretation of the terms “infect” and “infest,” “infection” and “disease,” and other terms. Many seemingly harmless symbionts of a wide array of taxonomic groups are triggered to become pathogenic or virulent, and we provide several examples of the provoking (stimulating) triggers, with the understanding that in most cases, the conditions for the triggered activities are much more complex and complicated than presented.