Download The Psychology Book by Nigel Benson, Joannah Ginsburg, Voula Grand, Merrin Lazyan, PDF

By Nigel Benson, Joannah Ginsburg, Voula Grand, Merrin Lazyan, Marcus Weeks, Catherine Collin

Essentially explaining greater than a hundred groundbreaking rules within the box, The Psychology Book makes use of available textual content and easy-to-follow portraits and illustrations to provide an explanation for the complicated theoretical and experimental foundations of psychology.

From its philosophical roots via behaviorism, psychotherapy, and developmental psychology, The Psychology Book appears in any respect the greats from Pavlov and Skinner to Freud and Jung, and is a necessary reference for college students and someone with an curiosity in how the brain works.

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Wundt said that there are two types of observation: external and internal. External observation is used to record events that are visible in the external world, and is useful in assessing relationships such as cause and effect on physical bodies—for example, in stimulus and response experiments. If a nerve fiber in a dead frog is given a small electric shock, the connecting muscles twitch, causing the legs to move. The fact that this happens even in a dead animal illustrates that such movements can occur without any consciousness.

Researchers charted methods of social, cultural, and moral learning, and the ways in which we form attachments. The contribution of developmental psychology to education and training has been significant but, less obviously, it has influenced thinking about the relationship between childhood development and attitudes to race and gender. Almost every psychological school has touched upon the subject of human uniqueness, but in the late 20th century this area was recognized as a field in its own right in the psychology of difference.

Wundt went on to say that even simple organisms such as protozoa have some form of mind. This last claim is surprising today, when few people would expect a single-celled animal to demonstrate even simple mental abilities, but it was even more surprising when first stated more than 100 years ago. Wundt was keen to test out his theories, and he is often called “the father of experimental psychology” because he set up the world’s first formal laboratory of experimental psychology in Leipzig University, Germany, in 1879.

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