By Peter A. Lawrence
Knowing how a multicellular animal develops from a unmarried telephone (the fertilized egg) poses one of many maximum demanding situations in biology this present day. improvement from egg to grownup contains the sequential expression of almost the complete of an organism's genetic directions either within the mom as she lays down developmental cues within the egg, and within the embryo itself. such a lot of our current info at the position of genes in improvement comes from the invertebrate fruit fly, Drosophila. the 2 authors of this article (amongst the main professionals on the earth) stick to the developmental approach from fertilization in the course of the primitive structural improvement of the physique plan of the fly after cleavage into the differentiation of the range of tissues, organs and physique components that jointly outline the fly. The developmental methods are absolutely defined through the textual content within the sleek language of molecular biology and genetics. this article represents the important synthesis of the topic that many were anticipating and it'll permit many particular classes in developmental biology and molecular genetics to target it. it is going to appeali to second and third yr scholars in those disciplines in addition to in biochemistry, neurobiology and zoology. it is going to even have frequent allure between researchers. Authored by means of one of many most popular experts on the earth. a special synthesis of the developmental cycle of Drosophila - our significant resource of knowledge at the position of genes in improvement. Designed to supply the root of recent classes in developmental biology and molecular genetics at senior undergraduate point. A lucid rationalization within the glossy language of the technology.
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Extra resources for The making of a fly: the genetics of animal design
A. H. (1990) The three postblastoderm cell cycles of Drosophila embryogenesis are regulated in G2 by string. Cell 62: 469-480. F. and Ashbumer, M. (1988) The product of the Drosophila gene vasa is very similar to eukaryotic initiation factor-4A. Nature 335: 611-615. SOURCES OF FIGURES For details, see above. 1 See Struhl (1981). 2 See Jimenez and Campos-Ortega (1982). 3 See Zalokar et al. (1980) and Zusman and Wieschaus (1987). 4 After Roberts (1985), see also Campos-Ortega and Hartenstein (1985).
In the abdomen there are segmentally repeated groups of histoblast cells (approximately 10 in each group) which will replace the moribund larval epidermis in the, pupa but do not divide until then. 7) small groups of cells can be identified in the newly hatched larva as the imaginal discs (approximately 40 cells in each one). They grow throughout the larval life and form folded sacs of epithelia that are continuous with the polyploid larval cells. 7 The origin of the adult cells (red). 20 CHAPTER 1 stretched thin, has been called the peripodial membrane and has been traditionally considered to be different from the remaining columnar epithelium.
Molecules whose local concentration determines the local pattern of differentiation in this way have been called morphogens. Detailed models of this type have been developed to explain pattern formation within the insect segment; they are discussed in Chapter 6. 2 Evidence for an anteroposterior gradient — experiments on Euscelis. The body pattern of the embryo is indicated by the sequence and size of numbers 1 - 6 , and the gradient interpretations shown on the same scale. Similar egg-cutting experiments have been done with Drosophila and, just as in the leaf-hopper, when the body parts made by the anterior and posterior fragments are added up, there is a gap in the middle segments when the cut is made early, but not when it is made late.