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By Peter L. Roudik

Significant Asia's lengthy and complex heritage is teeming with varied cultures and traditions. The countries of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan have served as a huge cultural crossroad through the millennia, with many customs colliding and mixing alongside the best way. during this finished quantity, scholars can find out how primary Asia constructed in precedent days and the way the international locations of the steppes advanced in the course of the heart a while into sleek historical past. From the Silk highway to Russian colonization to Soviet rule, principal Asia's ever-changing countries proceed to play a massive position in foreign society this present day. This quantity is the appropriate addition to any highschool, public, or undergraduate library.

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30 History of the Central Asian Republics ­ ufism’s major features are the refusal of solemn and complicated rites of OrS thodox Islam, the absence of clergy, belief in asceticism, internal contemplation, identification of nature with God, and nonparticipation in public social life. In the ninth century, Central Asia became the center of khadis writing, a genre in Islamic religious writing of stories about Muhammad’s life, his miracles, and his teachings. Most of the officially accepted khadis writers were well-known theologists who were born in Central Asia; the most famous were al-Bukhari and al-Termezi.

6 The Akhaemenids ruled Central Asia for more than 200 years. Control of local areas was in the hands of the satrap and his officers, who collected taxes paid in grain, wine, and livestock. The rivers were the king’s property; when water was needed for irrigation, a state officer supervised the opening of locks and regulated the amount of water taken by each tribe or settlement. For the opening of the locks, a large sum was paid to the officer, who was supposed to transfer this money into state coffers.

The local people were not strict followers of Islam, and the Samanids did not insist on the prevalence of a religious life over economic interests. Early History33 They diminished the influence of nomadic Turks, and once again made Sam­ arkand the regional capital and international commercial center, which resulted in further government centralization and territorial expansion. Bokhara asked to be included in the Samanid Empire, and, after a series of attacks on the Turks, the frontier was moved far north.

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