Download The Handbook of Environmental Voluntary Agreements: Design, by Edoardo Croci (auth.), Edoardo Croci (eds.) PDF

By Edoardo Croci (auth.), Edoardo Croci (eds.)

The ebook presents a accomplished financial conception and research of environmental voluntary agreements (VAs), which takes into consideration the diversity of kinds and alertness occasions characterizing this environmental coverage device. universal methodologies, implementation principles and assessment standards for researchers, coverage makers and company operators within the use of environmental voluntary agreements are discussed.

Case research enhances the theoretical research. a eu and an American method of VAs are wonderful, and situations in China and Australia also are integrated. nationwide and zone reviews are investigated which will think of the total variety of purposes which the flexibleness of VAs permits. possibilities and hazards within the use of VAs are tested. Their overview, additionally compared and at the side of different coverage instruments, is played. VAs are nonetheless an device in evolution, so the tendencies of their layout and enforcement principles are considered.

The authors are regularly economists and legislations students from Universities, learn facilities, environmental enterprises and overseas associations.

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Additional info for The Handbook of Environmental Voluntary Agreements: Design, Implementation and Evaluation Issues

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A. (1955), A behavioral model of rational choice, Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol. LXIX, February. A. 69, issue 4, September. 69, 1961. J. 2 (1). Stoeckl N. , Business strategy and the environment, n. 13. ten Brink P. ) (2002), Voluntary environmental agreements: process, practice and future use, Greenleaf, Sheffield, UK. United Nations (1992), The Rio Declaration, Agenda 21, Earth summit on sustainable development, Rio de Janeiro. United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (1998), Convention on access to information, public participation and access to justice in environmental matters, Aarhus.

1 Non participation In the first case examined in the previous chapter, a VA is reached under the threat of regulation. This is a common situation. Firms must bear a cost, but this cost is estimated to be inferior to the alternative under regulation. So they choose to sign the agreement in order to avoid the regulation. More realistically, firms will make their decision regarding the participation to the VA by assigning a weight to the threat of regulation. If the threat is judged unrealistic, because of lobbying ability or other opposition instruments, firms could prefer not to enter the agreement and risk a stricter regulation.

Usually this approach includes a monitoring and reporting scheme that assures information dissemination internally and externally to compensate for the lack of legal obligation and maintain a sufficient level of peer pressure. The United States employs a broad portfolio of public schemes/programs in the industrial sector. These schemes encourage a specific action by industry based on some agreed upon criteria. Examples include Green Lights, Climate Wise, Motor Challenge, and the Voluntary Aluminum Industry Partnerships (VAIP).

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