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By Brown, JoAnne

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7 With Wundt’s experimental and physiological psychology came themost complete dissociation of psychology from metaphysics, and it was Wundt above all who inspired the Americans. 8 Also essential to understanding the psychology of measurement in the United States is the influence of British polymath Sir Francis Galton. Galton, a cousin of biologist Charles Darwin, and son of Erasmus Darwin, was a scientist in the nineteenthcentury style; his work ranged among the now-differentiated disciplines of criminology, anthropology, genetics, eugenics, physiology, psychology, and sociology.

The typical public school teacher of 1908 was a young, unmarried, second-generation immigrant woman with fewer than ten years’ teaching experience and no professional training. It is hardly surprising that education inspired little respect as a profession. Moreover, organizational changes were already under way that would exacerbate the relative decline in teachers’ cultural authority. 49 CHAPTER THREE The consolidation of rural and urban schools into centralized systems meant that previously independent, isolated, and homogeneous school populations became part of larger, interdependentcommunities.

It is hardly surprising that education inspired little respect as a profession. Moreover, organizational changes were already under way that would exacerbate the relative decline in teachers’ cultural authority. 49 CHAPTER THREE The consolidation of rural and urban schools into centralized systems meant that previously independent, isolated, and homogeneous school populations became part of larger, interdependentcommunities. System superintendents (thejob itself was an innovation) were confronted by new conflicts that previously had been matters of consensus within narrower communities.

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