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By Charles D. Michener

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The Bees of the World

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Extra resources for The Bees of the World

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A recent study, containing relevant references to earlier works, is that of Macrotera texana (Cresson) (Panurginae). It showed that in this commonly communal bee, relationships among colony members did not differ significantly from relationships among non-nestmates of the same population (Danforth, Neff, and Barretto-Ko, 1996). The terms explained above for various social levels among bees were often thought of as reflecting a possible evolutionary sequence of species from solitary to eusocial. Thus a parasocial sequence consisted of solitary, communal, semisocial, and eusocial species and a subsocial sequence consisted of solitary, subsocial, and eusocial species.

The chemicals in its pollen food, or the floral structure of its host plant, to which it must adjust. , different chemicals in pollens and diverse floral structures, in different plants. Much evolution, therefore may have been from the simpler requirements of a specialist to the complex requirements of a generalist. The obvious advantage would be access to the much increased resources available to the generalist. As species-level phylogenies are worked out in genera like Andrena, Colletes, Leioproctus, and Megachile that contain both polylectic and oligolectic species, better understanding of this topic will develop.

Ter) in saggital section, the very thin earthen cell walls, and the 26 THE BEES OF THE WORLD Figure 7-6. Parts of three nests of Heriades spiniscutis (Cameron) eggs or very young larvae in the upper ends of masses of provi- in dead, dry stems. The nest at the right had thin partitions made of sions. To show the eggs, loose pollen was blown away from the pith fragments between the cells; the partitions are marked by hori- nest at the left before photographing. From Michener, 1968b. zontal lines.

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