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By Larry M. Hyman

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Extra resources for Studies in Stress and Accent (Southern California Occasional Papers in Linguistics 4)

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114 . 12 . 77 . 97 Although we have hypothesized that grammatical stress should tend to fall next to a boundary, penultimate stress appears to be at least as natural as final stress, and is observed to be almost as frequently attested in languages (77 vs. 97 respectively). On the other hand, stress, as opposed syllable stress must only 12 languages to 114 initial-stress therefore were found to have dominant second languages. 17 The rare occurrence syllable of second be explained. The penultimate position, while it is equally distant from a boundary as is the second syllable, is a much more natural place to put stress.

E. 45 devoicing; say, with before a final pause. in this language, a word in its citation form voiceless consonant; the same word may, however, will be realized, be realized with a final voiced consonant when in sentence-medial position (especially if the following word begins with a vowel). Final-devoicing may then become generalized to new environments, as when a speaker wishes to clearly identify the word boundaries for his listener, The result is that devoicing now characterizes voiced segments preceding any word boundary, whether that word boundary coincides with an utterance or pause boundary or not.

2 The purpose of the present paper is to present the results of a cross-linguistic study of stress phenomena which has grown to encompass approximately 400 languages from all parts of the globe. My immediate goal has been toQuncover cross-linguistic generalizations which may have a bearing on the answers to the above questions. In the following sections I shall address myself to general principles of stress placement, and then to the role of syllable weight in stress languages. But first, it will be necessary to summarize what is meant by "stress" and "stress language".

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