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By Ibrahim Kaya

The controversy on different types of modernity is vital to present social thought and study, and this booklet explores the subject in terms of the tradition and society of Turkey. The publication specializes in the Kemalist venture to create a contemporary Turkish geographical region, studying its ancient history, the position of techniques of ethnicity and country, and the configurations of country, society and economic system within the new Turkish republic. the writer then strikes directly to research the relatives among Islam and modernity, arguing that either has to be understood as open to a number of interpretations instead of visible as monolithic and as diametrically antagonistic. He considers the increase of Islamism in Turkey and appears particularly on the paradoxical function of ladies activists in the Islamist circulation. finally, Kaya argues that Islamism needs to be understood as a latest flow, albeit a paradoxical one, instead of easily as a go back to ''tradition''.

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In other words, because modernity does not define how social life should be experienced, it is the work of people to create their own life perspectives. It must be clear that modern society is not a coherent whole, but rather a conflicting diversity of world-interpretations indicating the radical pluralism of cultural worlds. This is to say that the creation of life perspectives is not free from cultural worlds and meanings. Therefore, Weberian pessimism could be overcome, in that substantive rationality which gives meaning to life is not replaced by a formal, instrumental rationality governed purely by the goal of ‘efficiency’.

It shook Eastern civilizations, aiming to recreate them as stabilized entities. Already existing disputes were radicalized by the challenge of Western modernity; for example, the tension between civilian bureaucracy and the ulema (Islamic scholars) in the Ottoman Empire became more noticeable when Western modernity challenged the Empire. Modernity has been understood as a universal system by most Western observers. The emergence of modernity is seen as a radical break with history, with Reason at its core.

In sociological terms, it is important to look at the position of ‘the social’ under current conditions. Tribes – emotional communities – seem to be replacing ‘mass’ society, seen as a devil by Adorno and Horkheimer (1988). This current situation causes pessimistic perspectives rather than optimistic ones. It is seen that unlimited relativism makes it very difficult, if not impossible, for people to live together. This assumption is based on the belief that the emergence of new communities means the celebration of the right of ‘difference’ against ‘universalism’.

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