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Additional resources for Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology Volume 239
1996). This is because field Koc values typically are two to three orders of magnitude higher than those in the laboratory due to the ubiquitous presence of condensed carbon phases, such as black carbon (Cornelissen et al. 2005; Koelmans et al. 2006; Moermond et al. 2005). Consequently, the chemical concentration in sediment that causes toxicity also will be two to three orders of magnitude higher. When the used Koc value is based on sediment lacking a condensed carbon phase we recommend a worst case approach in Tier-0.
The reasoning for this proposal is further elaborated in Sect. 2 below. J. Diepens et al. 1 Toxicity Data Requirements in European Regulatory Frameworks If the triggers, described in Section 5, are met, toxicity data for benthic organisms are required (Table 4). Hommen et al. (2010) provided an overview of data requirements for aquatic ERA. Current regulations do not always specify the requirements for sediment toxicity testing. Data requirements for freshwater benthic organisms especially concern tests with Chironomus sp.
2007; Rubach et al. 2011) and thus internal exposure. Particle or food ingestion depends on diet and plays a dominant role for some benthic invertebrates such as C. volutator (Diepens et al. Under revision), Lumbriculus variegatus (Gaskell et al. 2007; Leppa¨nen and Kukkonen 1998; Sidney et al. in prep), Arenicola marina (Diepens et al. Under revision; Kaag et al. 1997) and Macoma balthica (Diepens et al. Under revision; Kaag et al. 1997; McLeod et al. 2008; McLeod et al. 2007) whereas for other species such as Ilyodrilus templetoni (Lu et al.