By Ware G.W.
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Extra info for Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Vol. 187
2. Negative impacts on mammalian populations can persist longer than pesticide residues do in treated environments (Shefﬁeld and Lochmiller 2001). Pesticide Risk Assessment 31 3. Although life history traits can help identify mammal species that rely on dispersal to remain viable (Fagan et al. 2001), such traits are not formally considered in present risk assessment methods. 4. The community conditioning hypothesis suggests that community structure can remain altered after pesticide residues have dropped to toxicologically insigniﬁcant levels.
However, ﬂedgling weight, a good predictor of ﬁrst-year survival, was not affected for these swallows. Some information suggests an inﬂuence of pesticides in combination with other factors, but provides no deﬁnitive conclusions. , 13 farmland bird species have declined an average of 30% from 1968 to 1995; however, populations of 29 habitat generalist bird species increased an average of 25% during the same time (Krebs et al. 1999). Similar reports of decline are present in the scientiﬁc literature, including those concerned with North American, British, and other European avifauna (Sotherton and Holland 2003).
In contrast to the foregoing, the following theory and evidence detract from any deﬁnitive statement that pesticides play an important role in general changes to the British landscape and associated biota. 1. Most communities display a degree of resistance to change and an ability to recover after stress-induced change (Cairns and Niederlehner 1993; Pratt and Cairns 1996). 2. Although current toxicity tests in support of pesticide authorizations generate imprecise predictions of population or community vitality or viability, there are indications that effects observed from these tests are, on average, conservative relative to population effects (Caslin and Wolfe 1999; Bishop et al.