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By Peggy Saari; Aaron Saari

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This was a disastrous development for Jews, who once again had to deal with discrimination under Christians. In 1233 Pope Gregory IX (before 1170–1241; reigned 1227–41) established the Inquisition (now known as the medieval Inquisition). This official church court was charged with finding and punishing pagans and heretics (those who did not adhere to the laws of the Catholic Church), namely Jews and Muslims, in Europe. 2 Renaissance and Reformation: Biographies Court Jews During the Renaissance many Jewish merchants and traders served on the courts of European rulers.

Sect: A small religious group. Secular: Nonreligious; worldly. Seignor: An owner of a large estate; also called a lord. Seignorialism: European social system inherited from the Roman practice of forcing poor people to be dependent on a large landowner called a seignor or lord. Serf: A peasant who was loyal to a lord and worked on land under the system of feudalism. Sextant: An instrument used for measuring angular distances. Simony: The selling of offices in the Roman Catholic Church. Smallpox: A contagious disease caused by a virus that produces severe skin sores.

Html, April 4, 2002. 22 Renaissance and Reformation: Biographies Francis Bacon January 22, 1561 London, England April 9, 1626 London, England Philosopher, statesman, and author F rancis Bacon made many contributions to the English Renaissance as a philosopher, statesman, and author. His advocacy of “active science” influenced the culture of the English-speaking world. He continued the family tradition of serving the royal court, and was made a nobleman during his career. His written works continue to be important in philosophy and history.

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