Download Psychology, 4th Edition by Peter O. Gray PDF

By Peter O. Gray

The recent variation of Gray's acclaimed textual content, that includes dramatic new insurance of sensation and conception and new media instruments that actively contain scholars in mental learn.

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For example, those who felt most motivated to overcome their depression might have been particularly likely to choose the psychotherapy condition. Thus any greater improvement by those in psychotherapy compared with the others might have resulted not from the psychotherapy but from the preexisting difference in motivation. When subjects are assigned randomly to groups, their individual differences are merely a source of error (and can be taken into account by the statistics); but when subjects are not assigned randomly, their differences can be a source of bias as well as error.

Suppose, for example, that you are interested in the relation between the disciplinary styles of parents and the psychological development of their children. Perhaps you entertain the theory that strict punishment is harmful, that it promotes aggressiveness or other unwanted characteristics. qxp 10/13/05 2:06 PM Page 31 CHAPTER 2 ■ METHODS OF PSYCHOLOGY 31 ure some aspect of the children’s behavior. You might consider randomly assigning some families to a strict punishment condition and others to other conditions.

A good measure is also valid—able to measure what it is intended to measure. Invalid measures are sources of bias. • Such expectancy effects can occur without intention or even awareness. • • A measure that seems valid on the basis of common senses has face validity. A measure that actually correlates with another, more direct, measure of the variable has criterion validity. In observer-blind studies, the observer is deliberately kept ignorant of information that could create expectancies. In doubleblind studies, observers and subjects are kept ignorant of such information.

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