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By Edward Royce

Poverty and gear means that ultra-modern poverty effects from deep-rooted disparities in source of revenue, wealth, and gear. the speed and severity of poverty stay excessive, simply because thousands of american citizens are trapped in low-wage jobs, inadequately served by means of executive coverage, excluded from mainstream coverage debates, and vitimized through discrimination and social exculsion.

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Extra info for Poverty and Power: The Problem of Structural Inequality

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63. Mishel, Bernstein, and Allegretto, The State of Working America 2004/2005, 345. 64. DeNavas-Walt, Proctor, and Lee, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage, 4–5, 38. 65. org/research/block/amerdream (accessed December 27, 2007). 66. On insecurity among the middle class, see Hacker, The Great Risk Shift; Elizabeth Warren and Amelia Warren Tyagi, The Two-Income Trap: Why Middle-Class Parents Are Going Broke (New York: Basic Books, 2003); Barbara Ehrenreich, Bait and Switch: The (Futile) Pursuit of the American Dream (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2005); and Louis Uchitelle, The Disposable American: Layoffs and Their Consequences (New York: Alfred A.

In chapter 10, I address problems of sex discrimination, child care, health care, retirement insecurity, and legal deprivation. I refer to these obstacles as structural because they originate from the combined workings of the economic, political, cultural, and social systems; because they are caused by social forces, arrangements, and practices outside the control of any particular individual; because they are experienced by the poor and the near poor as elements of the external social landscape, circumscribing their lives and limiting their options; and because they reflect the allocation of political and economic power and the distribution of resources and opportunities.

Cognitive ability, whether inherited or not, far from being a predominant factor, plays a relatively small role in determining people’s life outcomes. Second, the modest relationship between cognitive ability and poverty testifies more than anything to the influence of social and economic deprivation on children’s test performance. The biogenetic theory overstates the influence of IQ on poverty and understates the influence of poverty on IQ. Third, contrary to the supposition of The Bell Curve, research shows that social, political, and educational policies can raise children’s cognitive ability and can improve their later-life economic outcomes.

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