By Michael Bonner, Mine Ener, Amy Singer
Supplying insights and research in a box that has only in the near past come into lifestyles, this booklet explores the beliefs and associations wherein heart japanese societies—from the increase of Islam within the 7th century C.E. to the current day—have faced poverty and the terrible. by way of introducing new assets and offering popular ones with new questions, the participants research rules approximately poverty and the terrible, beliefs and practices of charity, and kingdom and personal projects of negative aid over this huge time span. They steer clear of effortless generalizations approximately Islam and the center East as they search to set the beliefs and practices in comparative standpoint.
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Additional info for Poverty and Charity in Middle Eastern Contexts
14 Therefore, it is likely that their position was derived more from their legal methodology than from their view of the proper social and economic order. At the same time, even if the Iraqis, and later the majority of Hanafis, based their views of zakat distribution on a possibly flawed but plausible logic, did they not realize the social implications of their position? Did this limit not hurt the very poor, above all? 15 This conservative stance, argues Bonner, encompasses the following views: A poor person is simply one who has no surplus wealth; poor people should not beg, but be patient with their condition; only the disabled or those unable to work should get alms; and family should be taken care of first.
Modern reworkings of tribal data extracted from medieval Arabic genealogical sources include Werner Caskel, Gamharat an-nasab. Das genealogische Werk des Hišam ibn Muhammad al-Kalbi (Leiden: Brill, 1966); T. , A Dictionary of Arab Tribes (Tokyo: Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa, 1999). For a dense description of tribal occupation of territory and local networks, see M. Lecker, The Banu Sulaym (Jerusalem: Magnes Press 1989). 33. On this see Noth, Early Arabic Historical Tradition.
Yet the transmitters of this tradition insist on this movement, which has much in common with some of the conceptions of circulation of wealth current in the early Islamic period: not strictly circular,47 but with goods and persons moving in the same direction and returning year after year. The most fully described of these markets of the Arabs is its culminating point, the market-fair of ‘Ukaz, with its extensions in nearby al-Majanna and Dhu l-Majaz (all of these two or three days’ journey from Mecca).