By Richard A. W. Hoos (auth.), K. Ranga Rao (eds.)
Pentachlorophenol and its salts are used as biocides. even supposing they're used quite often for maintenance and therapy of wooden, their antimicrobial, antifungal, herbicidal, insecticidal and molluscicidal homes ended in a frequent software of PCP formulations. Bevenue and Beckman reviewed the literature as much as 1967 at the chemistry, toxicology and environmental residues of PCP (Residue Rev. , 19: eighty three- 134, 1967). major advances in analytical method, recurrent incidents of mortalities of non-target organisms uncovered to PCP, regulatory activities touching on PCP utilization in nations similar to Japan and Sweden, and detection of the ever-present distribution of PCP within the surroundings, extra to the wealth of contemporary literature on pentachlorophenol. even with using PCP as an antimicrobial agent in drilling and packer fluids in the course of oil-drilling operations within the marine atmosphere, little is understood of the toxicity of PCP to marine and estuarine organisms. the aim of this quantity is to offer up to date info (including a few new reviews on marine and estuarine organisms) at the chemistry, pharmacology and environmental toxicology of pentachlorophenol. This quantity is a set of papers provided at a global symposium backed through the U. S. Environmental security corporation and The college of West Florida, held at Pensacola seashore, Florida, June 27-29,1977. i'm thankful to Norman L.
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Additional info for Pentachlorophenol: Chemistry, Pharmacology, and Environmental Toxicology
And K Nose, 1971. Decomposition of pentachlorophenol in farm soil. (Part 2). PCP metabolism by a microorganism isolated from soil. Noyaku Seisan Gijutsu, Japan, 26: 21-24. , 1950. Chemical control of weeds in vegetable crops in Illinois. Ill. Agr. Expt. Sta. , H-436. , 1965. Pentachlorophenol (PCP) derivatives as weed killers. 2. Movement and decomposition of PCP derivatives in soil. J. Sci. Soil Manure, Japan, 36: 200-202. , 1973a. Degradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by soil microorganisms.
1). The formation of brominated compounds when PCP was irradiated in a solution of potassium bromide (Crosby and Wong, 1976) provide strong evidence of an ionic mechanism, and further support for a nucleophilic displacement reaction coming from the formation of cyanide and the closely related p-chlorophenol under similar conditions (Omura and Matsuura, 1969). Photolysis of PCP in Water 23 OH OH c'0c, c'0c, __B_r_-"l» hl1 CIVCI CI + CIVBr CI The possible photonucleophilic displacement of chloride by chlorophenoxide ion in ortho-chlorophenols raises the intriguing question of the photochemical generation of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins.
The evolution of 14C0 2 from 14C-PCP treated cultures offers conclusive proof that ring cleavage does occur (Suzuki, 1977). It is generally accepted that the conversion of phenols to ortho or para-dihydroxyphenol derivatives occurs prior to ring cleavage in the metabolism of aromatic compounds by microorganisms (Evans, 1963). The isolation and identification of tetrachlorophenol and tetrachlorohydroquinone (Suzuki, 1977) would suggest that these products are intermediate metabolites prior to ring cleavage in PCP degradation (Fig.