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Additional info for Pedagogical Norms for Second and Foreign Language Learning and Teaching Studies: Studies in Honor of Albert Valdman (Language Learning & Language Teaching)
It is this set of principles for pedagogical norms that is most often cited today: 1. They should reﬂect the actual speech of target language speakers in authentic communicative situations. 2. They should conform to native speakers’ idealized view of their speech use. 3. They should conform to expectations of both native speakers and foreign learners concerning the type of linguistic behavior appropriate for foreign learners. 4. They should take into account processing and learning factors (1989a: 272).
By explaining how each norm represents diﬀerent groups of speakers in diﬀerent social circumstances speaking with diﬀerent groups of other native speakers for diﬀerent purposes, Valdman (1988) noted how certain norms become associated with power and prestige and then, through gradual process of uniformization, gain the status of standard. It is within this multi-faceted and ﬂuid vision of language that Valdman positioned his pedagogical norm by describing it as a vector that is “orientated toward a particular target language norm by ﬁltering input and controlling feedback” (Valdman 1988: 225).
Noun — verb inversion is taught speciﬁcally with comment (how) and combien (how much), the est-ce que form being considered “awkward” (p. 13). Questions with est-ce que alternate with intonation until inversion is introduced formally in the second half of the book (pp. 342–43). In comparison to his 1975 Langue et culture, there is less use of stigmatized wh-fronting and more expanded use of neutral est-ce que. However, in comparison with other ﬁrst-year college French textbooks published in the United States, the delayed introduction of the valorized inverted forms is striking.