By Bradford A. Hawkins
Parasitoids are bugs that parasitize and finally kill different bugs. among one and million species of parasitoid insect exist on this planet this day. This booklet explores how this wonderful range is maintained and records styles in host-parasitoid interactions, together with parasitoid group richness, the significance of parasitoids as mortality elements, and their impression on host densities as decided by way of the results of parasitoid introductions for organic keep watch over. It records normal styles utilizing info units generated from the worldwide literature and evaluates power underlying organic, ecological, and evolutionary mechanisms. A subject operating through the e-book is the significance of host refuges as an enormous constraint on host-parasitoid interactions.
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Extra info for Pattern and Process in Host-Parasitoid Interactions
But this result arises from a single study: Mustata (1978) reported 27 parasitoid species from Hylemya brassicae (Bouche) (Anthomyiidae) in Moldavian Romania! If all of these parasitoids really are associated with this host species, this case represents an extreme outlier and provides a sobering example indicating that high parasitoid species richness may occasionally be encountered even on a host species that normally supports far fewer parasitoids (Wishart, Colhoun & Monteith, 1957). Another 'anomaly' is found among the leaf-mining Hymenoptera, which support numbers of parasitoids similar to both external feeders and gallers (Fig.
This reasoning also forms the basis for the potential importance of taxonomic 'pseudoreplication' tested above. 2 Host feeding niche 33 If host taxonomic homogeneity is not randomly distributed among the host species in the data set, and species swarms tend to occur in some feeding niches and not in others, this could give rise to the niche differences. 5). These generic means can be used to test the effects of feeding niche and taxonomic homogeneity separately and in concert. 240, n = 84). 094) but not as strongly as is feeding niche.
4% of the species richness data in this host genus are multiple records. This kind of replication is likely to occur in all feeding niches where several congenerics or confamilials are included, although because many parasitoids are not fully identified it is not possible to measure the extent. The question here is how does this affect the apparent species richness pattern found among the host feeding niches? To examine the effect of including multiple cases of related host taxa within individual feeding niches, I calculated the mean number of parasitoid species per host species for all hosts in each host family in each feeding category.