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By Umberto Eco, Costantino Marmo, Shona Kelly

Through the lengthy debate at the nature and the type of symptoms, from Boethius to Ockham, there are no less than 3 strains of notion: the Stoic historical past, that affects Augustine, Abelard, Francis Bacon; the Aristotelian culture, stemming from the commentaries on De Interpretatione; the dialogue of the grammarians, from Priscian to the Modistae. glossy interpreters are usually misled by way of the truth that some of the authors usually used an identical phrases. this type of homogeneous terminology, besides the fact that, covers profound theoretical adjustments. the purpose of those essays is to teach that the medieval conception of indicators doesn't symbolize a different physique of semiotic notions: there are different and regularly substitute semiotic theories. This publication therefore represents an try and motivate extra examine at the nonetheless unrecognized number of the semiotic methods provided by means of the medieval philosophies of language.

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With De signis however, words begin to point directly towards individual things, of which the species intelligibiles are the mental equivalents: but the relation between words and species becomes secondary, and is reduced to a purely symptomatic rela­ tion. Bacon, who knows Greek, recognizes the difference between symbola and sēmeïa in De Interpretatione 16a (a difference hidden by the Boethian translation) but, on the base of an exact philological reading, he develops a 22 U. ECO, R. LAMBERTINI, C.

Similiter cantus galli nichil proprie nobis significat tamquam vox significativa, set gallum cantare sig­ nificat nobis horas, sicut rubor in mane significat nobis pluviam. Vocum significativarum alia significativa ad placitum, alia naturaliter. Vox significativa naturaliter est que ordinatur ad significandum, ut gemitus informorum et omnis vox ferarum vel sonus. ". 40. 57: "Est tarnen scien­ dum quod ad cuiuslibet vocis prolationem principaliter duo instrumenta naturalia sunt necessaria, scilicet pulmo et vocalis arteria.

36. Cf. 29. 51, Kilwardby and Bacon are the two authors who deal the most, in the Middle Ages, with the signum in terms of Augustine's line of thinking. 37. Cf. 60-61. 38. On the term "intentio" in Bacon, cf. 64-69. 39. Cf. 233, 20-234, 13: "Vocum alia significativa, alia non sig­ nificativa. ; vox sig­ nificativa est per quam omne animai interpretatur aliquid omni vel alicui sue speciei — omne vero animal potest hoc facere, quia natura non dedit ei vocem ociosam. Et hoc possumus videre manifeste, quia gallina aliter garrit cum pullis suis quando invitat eos ad escam et quando docet eos carere a milvo.

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