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By Gunther S. Stent

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Rev. Biol. 5 1 : 277. (5) . l 976b. Evolution and the theory of games. American Scientist 64 : 4 1 . -- (6) Maynard Smith, J. , and Price, G. R. 1973. The logic of animal conflict. Nature 246: 15. (7) Shepher, J. 1 97 1 . Mate selection among second generation kibbutz adolescents and adults. Archives of Sexual Behaviour 1 : 293. (8) Trivers, R. L. 1 97 1 . The evolution of reciprocal altruism. Q. Rev. Biol. 46: 35. (9) Wilson, E. 0. 1 975. Sociobiology. Cambridge, Mass. : Harvard University Press.

He is unable to separate the affective value of an inti­ mate versus a less intimate companion from an objective assessment of the companion's usefulness as an ally or en­ emy. A primate can harbor a grudge against another for a short time, but if the latter is an accepted close companion, the relationship will not be severed. The generalization "He did it to me several times and will probably do it again" seems obscured by the emotional tie; the companion's true value of the subject cannot be properly integrated across time.

M. Schrier and F. Stollnitz, 5: 83-153. New York, London: Aca­ demic Press. ( 1 5) Seyfarth, R. 1 976. Social relationships among adult female ba­ boons. Anim. Behav. 24: 9 1 7-938. ( 1 6) Trivers, R. L. 1 97 1 . The evolution of reciprocal altruism. Q. Rev. Biol. 46(4): 35-57. ( 1 7) Williams, G. C. 1 966. Adaptation and Natural Selection. A Critique of Some Current Evolutionary Thought. J. : Princeton University Press (paperback 1 974). ON THE PHYLOGENY OF HUMAN MORALITY N. Bischof INTRODUCTION "Morality" is understood here as a human behavioral complex that is (a) essentially cross-culturaL or universally human, and (b) apparently absent in animals, or specifi­ cally human.

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