By JF McAlpine
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Extra resources for Manual of Nearctic Diptera Volume 3
They are probably used to tear fungal hyphae. The Cecidomyiidae do not have serrate maxillae but their maxillae are very largc (relative Subfamily Ptychopterinae to other mouthparts) and, in this regard, are similar to Sciaridae and Mycetophilidae other than Ditomyiinae. A second character suggesting paraphyly of the Mycetophilidae is the loss of the eighth abdominal spiracle of larvae of Sciaridae and all Mycetophilidae other than Ditomyiinae. All other Bibionomorpha including Cecidomyiidae have the eighth spiracle.
Anthon, too, concluded that several features of this plan, such as the vertical orientaLtion of the mandibles and their subdivision into two articulating "segments," were primitive. We have reached the opposite conclusion. We think that the primitive nematoceran mandible most likely operated horizontally, or nearly so, as in the Tipulomorpha, Bibionomorpha, Nannochoristidae, and Siphonaptera, and that it was most likely undivided. A truly divided or segmented marrdible is othrlrwise unknown in Pterygota.
The siphon is shortest and least developed in Eucorethra Underwood (Chaoboridae) and in Anopheles Meigen (Culicidae), both of which are surfacc feeders like the Dixidae. As both these genera arc probably the most primitive members of their respective families, an exceptionally short siphon may reprcsent the primitive condition. The development of a more elongate siphon I4 I n Dixidae, as in other larvae of Nematocera posscssing spiracular lobes, the lobes are immovable, and we consider this feature to be the plesiomorphic condition.