By Swarup Bhunia, Saibal Mukhopadhyay
Layout concerns for low-power operations and robustness with recognize to adaptations in most cases impose contradictory standards. Low-power layout suggestions equivalent to voltage scaling, dual-threshold project and gate sizing may have huge damaging influence on parametric yield less than approach adaptations. This e-book specializes in circuit/architectural layout suggestions for attaining low energy operation less than parameter diversifications. We think of either good judgment and reminiscence layout points and canopy modeling and research, in addition to layout technique to accomplish at the same time low energy and version tolerance, whereas minimizing layout overhead. This e-book will talk about present business practices and rising demanding situations at destiny know-how nodes.
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Additional resources for Low-Power Variation-Tolerant Design in Nanometer Silicon
IEEE Trans Electron Devices 49:239–246 44. Alam MA, Weir BE, Silverman PJ (2002) A study of soft and hard breakdown – part I: analysis of statistical percolation conductance. IEEE Trans Electron Devices 49:232–238 45. Agarwal K, Liu F, McDowell C, Nassif S, Nowka K, Palmer M, Acharyya D, Plusquellic J (2006) A test structure for characterizing local device mismatches. In: Symposium on VLSI Circuits, pp 67–68 46. Mukhopadhyay S, Kim K, Jenkins K, Chuang C, Roy K (2008) An on-chip test structure and digital measurement method for statistical characterization of local random variability in a process.
A) (b) Fig. , T = 2N /fref . A second counter, counts the number of oscillations of the test counter during this fixed time duration. When the reference counter hits its maximum value, its stops the count in the test counters. The output of the test counter is now a digital representation of the frequency of the test ring oscillator relative to the reference ring oscillator. Phase Comparator: A phase comparator generates an output frequency which is equal to the difference in the frequencies of the reference and the test 1 Variations: Sources and Characterization 35 counter.
In: IEDM technical digest, Washington, DC, 451–454 29. Zhang JF, Eccleston W (1998) Positive bias temperature instability in MOSFET’s. Trans Electron Device 116–124 30. Zafar S, Callegari A, Gusev E, Fischetti MV (2003) Charge trapping related threshold voltage instabilities in high permittivity gate dielectric stacks. J Appl Phys 9298–9303 31. Zafar S (2006) A comparative study of NBTI and PBTI (charge trapping) in SiO2/HfO2 stacks with FUSI, TiN, Re gates. Symposium on VLSI Technology 32. Onishi K et al (June 2003) Bias-temperature instabilities of polysilicon gate HfO2 MOSFETs.