By Vernon W. Ruttan
This publication is set army R&D and procurement and expertise improvement (forget the 1st name selected through the publisher's advertising and marketing division; fairly use the author's subtitle that tells you precisely what to expect).
It is a crucial, thorough, dispassionate, and straightforward to learn ebook multi function.
Vernon Ruttan, individual economist of technological swap has struck back and addressed an issue that's as explored little through students because it is ideologically and politically encumbered. Proponents try and justify any army expenses with the (uncertain) promise of civilian "spin-offs" (in addition to ex ante declared army necessities --remember "star wars"?), and critics regularly spotlight mess ups (remember nuclear powered aircrafts?) in addition to over the top expenditures of army applied sciences ignoring their formative years cycle nature of virtually unique know-how and the certainly significant (even if frequently unplanned or accidental) civilian software potentials.
Vernon Ruttan experiences via seven cautious case experiences of socalled basic function applied sciences the background and the industrial implications of a couple of army applied sciences that experience yielded a long way achieving civilian functions with huge, immense monetary and social importance: interchangeable elements in rifle production that provide delivery to the socalled American "system of producing" (and invented in military armories instead of in Eli Whitney's "lab"), army plane and propulsion structures (jet engines in particular), nuclear energy (reactors), desktops and semiconductors, the net (in case you probably did now not recognize, it began with army R&D money), and at last the gap industries (satellites).
What makes this booklet so eminently readable is its succinct and dispassionate evaluate of all what we all know approximately those applied sciences: their origins, the position of the army R&D and procurement in its improvement in addition to how they opened up to civilian functions and the commercial value in their purposes. Few be successful as formidably as Vernon Ruttan in condensing voluminous literature right into a transparent and comprehensible precis inside lower than two hundred pages (a bold fulfillment in itself in our current instances of six hundred plus pages monographs). all through his research he continues to be target, transparent headed and with analytical rigor, now and then regardless of candor. there is not any greater e-book than this one to dispel any one-sided declare concerning the importance/usefulness of army R&D and procurement.
My own important take-away from Ruttan's research (from his hugely unique counterfactual historical past for pcs, semiconductors and the net) is that regardless of the large value and value of the army within the improvement of the entire applied sciences reviewed, we'd have got them besides even with no the army - no matter if considerably later and maybe much less hugely constructed. the single exception appears to be like nuclear strength, which almost certainly wouldn't be round with no the army (and which many might agree is a combined blessing at best). yet pass judgement on for your self. The interpreting is straightforward and enjoyable, and the research worthy each of your minutes!
Arnulf Gruebler, IIASA and Yale collage
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Additional resources for Is War Necessary for Economic Growth?: Military Procurement and Technology Development
The Theory of Wages, 2nd ed. London: Macmillan. Illinois Institute of Technology. 1968. Technology in Retrospect and Critical Events in Science (TRACES). Chicago: Illinois Institute of Technology. Mimeograph. Kaempffert, W. 1941. ” American Journal of Sociology 46: 431– 444. Kaldor, M. 1981. The Baroque Arsenal. New York: Hill & Wang. Kuhn, T. S. 1970. The Structure of Scientiﬁc Revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Lichtenberg, F. R. 1989. S. ” Social Studies of Science 19: 265–282.
By the end of the century, it accounted for over 50 percent. A unifying theme of this dramatic growth in the manufacturing sector was what came to be referred to as “the American System of Manufacturing” (Hounshell 1984, pp. 331–336). Economic historians have traditionally characterized the American system as the assembly of complex products from interchangeable individual parts (Rosenberg 1972, pp. 87–116). 1 My primary purpose in this chapter is to discuss the American, or more appropriately, the New England, armory system to illustrate that the role of military procurement in the development of general-purpose technology in the United States extends back to the early years of the nation.
6–8). These legislative acts were implicitly designed to subsidize the development of airlines. By 1927 all airmail was handled by contract carriers (Holley 1964, p. 12). In 1930 the Kelly Act was again amended, by the McNary-Watres Act, to change the formula by which airlines were compensated for transporting airmail. It replaced the compensation-by-weight formula with a payment by available volume. 25 per cubic feet per mile would be paid to contractors “regardless of whether the space in the aircraft was ﬁlled” (Von der Linden 1991, p.