By Yishai Tobin
This quantity presents a brand new form of contrastive research of 2 unrelated languages — English and Hebrew — in keeping with the semiotic thoughts of invariance, markedness and virtue thought. It concentrates on linguistic varieties and buildings that are remarkably various in each one language although they proportion an analogous conventional classifications and labels. Tobin demonstrates how and why conventional and sleek syntactic different types akin to grammatical quantity; verb demanding, element, temper and voice; conditionals and interrogatives; etc., should not similar throughout languages. it's argued that those so-called common recommendations functionality otherwise in every one language process simply because they belong to precise language-specific semantic domain names that are marked by way of various units of semantic good points. the knowledge utilized in this quantity were taken from quite a lot of either spoken and written discourse and texts reflecting people's real use of language awarded of their proper linguistic and situational contexts.
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Extra resources for Invariance, Markedness and Distinctive Feature Analysis: A Contrastive Study of Sign Systems in English and Hebrew
In English, for example, word order and changes in word order have the theoretical status of linguistic signs while in Hebrew they affect the nuances of messages and reflect different pragmatic implicatures, but they do not necessarily have the theoretical status of linguistic signs in their own right. English has a system of participation or control based on word order or the sequence of forms. The primary function of the participation or control system is to assign relative roles to participants in an event which can be described by a verb in a specific context.
The larger the word, the smaller its individual syllables. This principle of a synergetic relationship between wholes and parts may function on all the levels of language including the phrase, clause and discourse levels as well. Indeed, the concept of language synergy may even provide a qualitative and quantitative framework to examine the most basic linguistic principle in the semiotic or sign-oriented approach to language: namely, the concept of invariance versus variation. Chapter 1 26 The synergetic relationship between lexicon and grammar Invariant meanings are systematically and synergetically opposed to each other in two fundamental ways: paradigmatically, based on their value rela tionships within lexical and grammatical systems and syntagmatically, in discourse, to produce coherent messages.
Therefore, it is possible to claim that the semiotic act of communication can be seen as a "mini-max" struggle: the desire to create maximun communi cation with minimal effort. This mini-max struggle, however, is reflected by two converse communicative processes by encoders and decoders who stand in opposed and mirror-image like positions. Minimal effort on the part of the encoder will place a heavier burden on the decoder's inferential abilities. e. by forcing him to choose his signs in a way which may be inferred with less effort on the part of the decoder.