By Wilson M. Zaring, Gaisi Takeuti
First quantity within the Graduate Texts in arithmetic series.
Created as textbook on set concept at graduate point, together with issues like ordinal and cardinals, aciom of selection, Godel's theorem, Forcing
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Extra resources for Introduction to Axiomatic Set Theory (Graduate Texts in Mathematics, Volume 1)
K) CaF2 CaF2 -CeF3 4 F →4 I 3/2 11/2 4 F →4 I 3/2 13/2 CaF2 -CeO 2 4 F →4 I 3/2 11/2 CaF2 -GdF 3 4 F →4 I 3/2 11/2 4 F →4 I 3/2 13/2 CaF2 -LaF 3 CaF2 -LuF 3 4 F →4 I 3/2 11/2 4 F →4 I 3/2 13/2 4 F →4 I 3/2 11/2 Ref. 0632 95–300 ©2001 CRC Press LLC Neodymium (Nd 3 + , 4 f 3 )—continued Host crystal CaF2 -YF 3 Laser transition 4 F →4 I 3/2 11/2 Wavelength ( m) Temp. (K) Optical pump Mode Ref. 9145 77 Xe lamp p 253 Neodymium (Nd 3 + , 4 f 3 )—continued Host crystal CaWO4 Laser transition 4 F →4 I 3/2 11/2 4 F →4 I 3/2 13/2 CaY 2 Mg 2 Ge 3 O 12 4 F →4 I 3/2 9/2 4 F →4 I 3/2 11/2 Wavelength ( m) Temp.
K) Optical pump Mode Ref. 54 ©2001 CRC Press LLC Cobalt (Co 2 + , 3d 7 ) Host crystal Laser transition Wavelength ( m) Temp. (K) Optical pump Mode Ref. 165 77 Xe lamp p 4T 2 ZnF2 → 4 T1 535,801 Nickel (Ni 2 + , 3d 8 ) Host crystal Laser transition Wavelength ( m) Temp. (K) Optical pump Mode Ref. 797 ©2001 CRC Press LLC Nickel (Ni 2 + , 3d 8 )—continued Host crystal Laser transition Wavelength ( m) Temp. (K) Optical pump Mode Ref. 10 Divalent Lanthanide Ion Lasers Optical Hg — W — Xe — pump mercury arc lamp tungsten arc lamp Xe arc lamp Mode of operation cw — continuous wave p — pulsed Samarium (Sm 2 + , 4 f 6 ) Host crystal Laser transition CaF2 5d → 7 F1 SrF2 5D 0 → 7 F1 Wavelength ( m) Temp.
K) Optical pump Mode Ref. 2 Xe lamp p 156 * Reference 159 includes whispering-galley-mode lasing. 3659 Temp. (K) Optical pump Mode Ref. 116 Temp. 2 Optical pump Mode Xe lamp Hg lamp p cw Ref. 11 Trivalent Lanthanide Ion Lasers Optical pump alex. – ArL – CCL – CeLiSAF – CrLiSAF – D – DL – DyL – ErGL – Hg – Kr – KrFL – LED – LD – NdGL – alexandrite (BeAl2 O 4 :Cr) laser argon-ion laser color center laser Ce:LiSrAlF6 laser Cr:LiSrAlF6 laser frequency doubled dye laser dysprosium laser Er:glass laser mercury arc lamp krypton arc lamp krypton fluoride excimer laser light emitting diode laser diode Nd:glass laser Mode of operation AML – actively mode locked cas – cascade pumping/deactivation cw – continuous wave p – pulsed PML – passively mode locked qcw – quasi-continuous wave NdL NdYAG NdYLF NdYAP PT Q RL RS T TiS TmYAG W qWI Xe XeClL qs pa SML sml sp upc – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – neodymium laser Nd:Y 3 Al 5 O 12 laser Nd:LiYF 4 laser Nd:YAlO 3 laser pyrotechnical pumping frequency quadrupled ruby laser Raman-shifted frequency tripled Ti:sapphire laser Tm:Y3 Al 5 O 12 laser tungsten arc lamp quartz-tungsten-iodine lamp Xe arc lamp XeCl laser Q-switched photon avalanche pumping synchronously mode locked soliton mode locked self pulsed upconversion pumping scheme Cerium (Ce 3 + , 4 f 1 ) Host crystal Laser transition Wavelength ( m) Temp.