By Liina Pylkkänen
This concise paintings deals a compositional conception of verbal argument constitution in traditional languages that specializes in how arguments that aren't “core” arguments of the verb (arguments that aren't brought via verbal roots themselves) are brought into argument buildings. Liina Pylkkänen indicates that the kind of argument constitution version that enables extra noncore arguments is a pervasive estate of human language and that almost all languages have verbs that express this habit. it'd be common to hypothesize that the grammatical parts that let for this alteration are an identical in numerous languages, yet Pylkkänen, bringing up the diversities among the inventories of verbs that let extra arguments in English and Venda, exhibits the problems during this assumption. both the noncore arguments are brought through diverse components with varied distributions, she argues, or the introducing components are an analogous and a few different issue is answerable for the distributional distinction. Distinguishing among those kinds of motives and articulating the homes of argument-introducing parts is the essence of Pylkkänen’s conception. Investigating the grammatical components that let the addition of noncore arguments, Pylkkänen argues that the creation of extra arguments is basically carried by means of seven practical heads. Following Chomsky, she claims that those belong to a common stock of practical components from which a specific language needs to make its choice. Cross-linguistic version, she argues, has resources: choice; and how a language applications the chosen parts into syntactic heads. Liina Pylkkänen is Assistant Professor of Linguistics and Psychology at NYU.
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Heavy verb The nurse medicated the patient. b. Light verb The nurse gave the patient his medication. (51) a. Heavy verb John looked at the boy. b. Light verb John took a look at the boy. (52) a. Heavy verb John swept the ﬂoor. b. Light verb John gave the ﬂoor a sweep. It can be shown that the ability of a depictive to modify an indirect object is restricted to light verb constructions. This can be illustrated clearly for (48b) since—medication being a plausible object of transfer—it is ambiguous between a light and a heavy reading.
Thus, depictive secondary predication is an applicative diagnostic. 1 The Syntax and Semantics of Depictives A depictive secondary predicate describes a state that one of the arguments of the verb is in during the event described by the verb. This state can be predicated of either an internal or an external argument, although if the external argument is implicit, as in a passive, it cannot be modiﬁed by a depictive. Also, a depictive generally cannot access a DP inside a PP. Finally, as noted above, a depictive cannot be predicated of an indirect object.
1 Applicative diagnostics Test High applicatives Low applicatives 1. Can unergatives be applicativized? Yes No 2. Can static verbs be applicativized? Yes No 3. If the language has a depictive secondary predicate with the English distribution, is the applied argument available for depictive modiﬁcation? Yes No c. Depictive cannot modify implicit external argument *Keku u poq i lodhur. ’ d. Depictive can modify DP inside PP Drita poqi per Agimin e lodhur. ’ Unsurprisingly, Albanian depictives can also modify high applied arguments, but since they can also modify the PP version of the high applicative as in (46e), the test is irrelevant.