By Mark A. Jervis
Over the last 3 a long time there was a dramatic elevate in theoretical and functional stories on insect normal enemies. This significantly up-to-date and increased model of a prior best-seller is an account of significant points of the biology of predators and parasitoids, punctuated with details and suggestion on which experiments or observations to behavior, and the way to hold them out. It emphasizes practicalities and likewise presents advice on extra literature.
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Extra info for Insects as Natural Enemies: A Practical Perspective
3) showed a negative correlation between the likelihood of patch location and patch residence time, suggesting a trade-off between prey location and reproduction. It is unfortunate that few studies have considered the importance of genetic variation in natural enemy behaviour, yet studies such as these illustrate that artificial selection techniques may be applied to improve the effectiveness of biological control agents during mass-rearing programmes (but see Rutledge and Wiedenmann, 2003, for a counter-example).
1998) suggest that as behavioural control passes from aphid to parasitoid over time, the adaptive benefits of responding to these cues will also change. In cases where the odour of a parasitoid repels conspecifics, the substance is a pheromone, whereas in cases where heterospecific competitors Host/prey location behaviour are repelled, there is some justification in describing the substance as an allomone. However, because of similar problems to those mentioned when discussing patch marking (below), the use of the term allomone should be avoided here.
Vet and Dicke (1992) assume that high reliability cues are produced in smaller amounts than general host plant odours. It is unfortunately hard to see how reliability and delectability could be measured in a quantitative way, making the testing of the concept difficult. However, there are now a number of studies (discussed below) that have gone some way to overcoming these problems. g. ), statistical problems abound. Two will be considered here. First, at which point is the test insect provided with too many choices to make effective comparisons and how does this affect the sample size required?