By Greg London
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At index zero). All elements will be shifted DOWN one index. The array will be shorted by one. The return value is the value removed from the array. e. at index ZERO). All the other elements in the array will be shifted up to make room. This will length the array by the number of elements in LIST. 6 foreach (@array) Use foreach to iterate through all the elements of a list. Its formal definition is: LABEL foreach VAR (LIST) BLOCK This is a control flow structure that is covered in more detail in the "control flow" section.
The inner loop must skip the end of the hash (an undefined key) and continue the inner loop. This also fixes a problem in the above example in that we probably do not want to compare a key to itself. "than $cmp_pet\n"; } } } > > > > > > there there there there there there are are are are are are more less less less more more cats cats dogs dogs fish fish than than than than than than dogs fish fish cats cats dogs If you do not know the outer loop key, either because its in someone else's code and they do not pass it to you, or some similar problem, then the only other solution is to call keys on the hash for all inner loops, store the keys in an array, and loop through the array of keys using foreach.
The first element becomes the last element. 9 splice(@array) Use splice() to add or remove elements into or out of any index range of an array. splice ( ARRAY , OFFSET , LENGTH , LIST ); The elements in ARRAY starting at OFFSET and going for LENGTH indexes will be removed from ARRAY. Any elements from LIST will be inserted at OFFSET into ARRAY. my @words = qw ( hello there ); splice(@words, 1, 0, 'out'); warn join(" ", @words); > hello out there ... 10 Undefined and Uninitialized Arrays An array is initialized as having no entries.