By Paul J. Curran (auth.), Joachim Hill, Jacques Mégier (eds.)
The means of imaging spectrometry has now handed its infancy and entered right into a new part of software orientated study. complex sensor structures (such as Nasa/JPL's AVIRIS) became on hand for overseas examine programmes (MAC Europe 1991), new imaging spectrometers are less than improvement in different ecu international locations or have already handed their attractiveness assessments, and primary excessive spectral solution imaging structures are already operated by means of inner most undefined. On eu point, the EARSEC programme of the Joint learn Centre has supplied substantial monetary investments for the advance of an imaging spectrometer which covers the reflective and critical components of the emissive spectrum (DAIS-7915), and the eu house service provider has initiated a massive airborne distant sensing crusade (EMAC 1994/95) during which imaging spectrometry will represent probably the most very important parts. The expanding sensor services additionally replicate the truth that imaging spectrometry has complicated in lots of software fields of earth distant sensing. growth has been made within the improvement of information pre-proeessing equipment, spectral signature modeling and semi-empirical methods for retrieving floor parameters. It for this reason seemed vital to additional disseminate information regarding new methods within the application-oriented research of imaging spectrometry info. This quantity provides the lectures of the second one EUROCOURSE on imaging spectrometry which used to be held in November 1992 on the Joint examine Centre (a first direction on "Fundamentals and potential purposes" of imaging spectrometry were organised in October 1989, the lectures being released as EUROCOURSES in distant Sensing, vol. 2).
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Additional info for Imaging Spectrometry — a Tool for Environmental Observations
3 F I G U R E 1. The solar spectrum (after Neckel and Labs, 1984). Much more important for our purpose is the absorption and scattering of solar radiation within the atmosphere, both before and after the interaction of the radiation with the surface. The Earth atmosphere is a gaseous layer principally composed of molecular nitrogen (78% per volume) and oxygen (21%). Some trace gases occur in relatively minor concentrations, but nevertheless play a dominant role in the climate system, mainly because of their capacity to absorb radiation in specific spectral bands (wavelength intervals).
Channel number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Central Wavelength [nm] 485 560 660 830 1650 11450 2215 Width [nm] 70 80 60 140 200 2100 270 TABLE 2. Landsat-TM solar spectral bands (Freden & Gordon, 1983) These instruments are designed to operate at very much higher spatial resolution than the AVHRR, typically 10 m for the panchromatic mode of SPOT-HRV, or 30 m for the Landsat-TM instrument (The older Landsat-MSS instrument had a spatial resolution of 80 m). The penalty for using these instruments is that global coverage can only be acquired in 16 days with the Landsat system, and every 26 days with SPOT.
25 J. Hill and J. ), Imaging Spectrometry - a Toolfor Enviromnental Observations, 25-38. © 1994ECSC, EEC, EAEC, Brussels and Luxembourg. Printed in the Netherlands. 26 Remote sensing instruments can be classified in two broad categories, depending on the source of radiation. Active sensors emit their own electromagnetic waves. These are directed towards the target of interest, which scatters a fraction of this incoming radiation back to the instrument. Examples of active sensing systems include radars and lasers; they tend to require very high power supplies.