By Paul Lester, Susan Ross
Photos That Injure presents an exam of a specific set of images that do damage to others,and in flip to we all. those images—media-promulgated stereotypes of varied and various teams of people—cause damage in either direct and oblique methods through featuring oversimplified, commonly destructive, and infrequently misleading depictions. during this number of new and revised essays, famous students discover the ways that those pictures are created, considered, and eventually ingrained into the yankee tradition, analyzing newspapers, books, movies, ads, commercials,television indicates, magazines, and the web. teams as assorted as African-Americans, girls, the aged, the bodily disabled, gays and lesbians, and Jewish american citizens are thought of the following; additionally integrated is a unique part on post-9/11 stereotyping within the media.The particular examples awarded in those pages offer a wealth of fabric for college students and execs in journalism, advertisements, public kinfolk, ethics, gender reports, and a good many different fields. The authors supply considerate and inventive conclusions relating replacement representations—arguing that, opposite to what we would think, media stereotyping is infrequently an important byproduct of mass tradition. eventually, those discussions light up how every one of those media and every folks separately and jointly perform a sea of which means that's at the same time own and social, precise and shared, associated and self reliant.
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Extra info for Images that Injure
However, as our advertising colleagues could tell us, usually more than the surface message is communicated to an audience. The use of stereotypes, especially in pictorial form, ends up communicating much more than may have been intended; it positively reinforces a history of exploitation. Professional Obligations to Readers, Listeners, or Viewers. This is, perhaps, the most frequent justification I have heard from journalists for stereotyping activities. In the context of this rationalization, we can find all sorts of pictorial examples, as when we show pictures of grieving parents or severely injured persons, or picture after picture of arrests that consistently show people from diverse cultures being arrested when, as a matter of fact, Anglos are arrested in greater numbers than any other ethnic group.
Frames include "keywords, stock phrases, stereotyped images, sources of information, and sentences that provide thematically reinforcing clusters of facts or judgments" (Entman, 1993, p. 52). Unlike Tuchman's window frame, content frames are only partly visible. Much of framing lies deeply embedded in text and is decoded by audience members who recognize the cultural meanings of certain words, images, narratives, or juxtapositions. Thus, frames consist of more than just the text and images on the page; frames encompass the meanings those things convey (van Dijk, 1991).
Southern women are blonde, tough, and wise underneath a layer of practiced charm, and so on. Stereotypes are used as a way of gaining credibility. A stereotype is, after all, an artifact of common belief. Most people believe that most gang members are Latino or African American because law enforcement officers tell us that is the case, and the evening news confirms it. The truth is that there are many Anglo gangs. Thus, the use of this stereotype in a dramatic program is one that appears to fit reality, and, because it appears to fit reality, the program gains the confidence of the viewer in that regard.