By Karen Hagemann
We are all conscious about the devastation and upheaval that consequence from warfare. much less visible is the level to which the army and warfare influence at the gender order. This ebook is the 1st to discover the intersections of the army, battle and gender in twentieth-century Germany from numerous diversified views. Its authors examine the relevance of the army and warfare for the formation of gender kinfolk and their illustration in addition to for the development of person and social company for either genders in civil society and the army. They inquire concerning the origins and improvement of gendered pictures as they have been formed via battle. They expound at the multifarious mechanisms that served to reconstruct or newly shape gender kin within the postwar classes. They examine the participation of girls and males within the construction of wars in addition to the gender-specific which means in their respective roles. eventually, they examine the various methods of remembering and coming to phrases with the 2 nice army conflicts of the very violent 20th century. The publication specializes in the interval prior to, in the course of and after the 2 global Wars, heavily associated 'total wars' that mobilized either the 'front' and the 'home-front' and more and more blurred the bounds among them. Drawing on resources starting from forces newspapers to German pilot literature, police stories on women's nutrition riots to oral background interviews with squaddies' other halves, the richly documented case reviews of Home/Front upload the long-overdue gender measurement to the cultural and ancient debates that encompass those nice army conflicts.
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Extra resources for Home / the military, war, and gender in twentieth-century Germany
On the role of women in the armed resistance in Eastern Europe, see Strobl (1989). See Drolshagen (1998). The German title Ungeschoren davongekommen is a play on words, meaning both ‘escaped unscathed’ and ‘escaped unshorn,’ a reference to the practice of shaving the heads of women in occupied countries who were believed to have had relationships with German soldiers. See also Beck (1996) and (1999). On (forced) prostitution, see Seidler (1977), 135–192; Paul (1994); Meinen (1999). Brownmiller (1976).
100 Another central component of Nazi wartime policy for the pacification of the home front emerged from the lessons of the First World War. 101 Most Germans began to suffer from hunger and cold only during the final year of the war, but especially after it was over. 3 million Wehrmacht soldiers were killed during the Second World War. More than 50 per cent of them died on the eastern front, an average of more than 2,000 every day, rising to up to 5,000 in the autumn of 1944. At the front, as at home, exact casualty figures were – 22 – Home/Front unavailable, but like the soldiers and officers who experienced death on a daily basis, family members in Germany also heard of the heavy death toll.
Frank Biess’s essay ‘Men of Reconstruction – The Reconstruction of Men. Returning POWs in East and West Germany, 1945–1955’ addresses this question. 139 He focuses on the one hand on societal perceptions of the returning veterans in East and West Germany, and on the other on the men’s reactions to their reception. Biess shows that returning veterans, as ‘men in their prime’, played a central role as a projection surface for the formulation of a new postwar masculinity. 141 One of the central questions that historians have only just begun to ask in this context is whether we can speak of a specific German attitude towards war, the military, and masculinity, and if so, to what extent it was shaped by the experiences of the First World War, but above all by those of the Second World War.