By Robert H. Crabtree, Paul T. Anastas
In a global the place the emphasis has shifted to being as eco-friendly and environmentally pleasant as attainable, results in the requirement of this significant 12-volume guide of eco-friendly Chemistry edited through the daddy and pioneer of eco-friendly Chemistry, Professor Paul Anastas. This sequence summarises the numerous physique of labor that has collected during the last decade that information the breakthroughs, innovation and creativity inside of eco-friendly Chemistry and Engineering. Edited through the well known chemist, Professor Robert Crabtree, by no means prior to has the topic of eco-friendly catalysis been so completely coated. This quantity focusses on eco-friendly biocatalysis. a vital assortment for a person wishing to realize an figuring out of the area of eco-friendly chemistry and for quite a few chemists, environmental corporations and chemical engineers.
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Additional info for Handbook of Green Chemistry, Volume 3: Biocatalysis
11 Brenner, C. J. M. (2004) Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 70, 2429–2436. , Nagasawa, T. and Yamada, H. , Nagasawa, T. and Yamada, H. (1992) Biochemistry, 31, 9000–9007. , Goda, M. and Shimizu, S. (1998) Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 253, 662–666. , Nagasawa, T. and Yamada, H. , Ohba, Y. and Furuhashi, K. B. (1977) The Biochemical Journal, 165, 309–319. , Yoshida, T. and Gekko, K. (2000) European Journal of Biochemistry/ FEBS, 267, 138–144. , Varsani, A. T. (2007) FEBS Journal, 274, 2099–2108.
An important parameter that characterizes ILs is their polarity, which has been studied by using several solvatochromic and ﬂuorescent probes (for example Nile Red and Reichardts betaine dye). 1 Miscibility of different ILs with molecular solventsa. Miscibility Cation Anion H2O AcN iPrOH Hexane Toluene [EMim] [BMim] [HMim] [EMim] [BMim] [HMim] [BMim] [HMim] [OMim] [O3MeN] [O3MeN] [O3MeN] [BF4] [BF4] [BF4] [PF6] [PF6] [PF6] [NTf2] [NTf2] [NTf2] [TfO] [NTf2] [TFA] þ þ þ/À þ À À À À À À À þ/À þ þ þ/À þ þ þ þ þ þ þ þ þ À À þ À À À þ þ À þ þ þ þ/À À À À À À þ/À À À À À þ À À À À À À À À À þ þ/À þ a þ , Totally miscible; þ /À, partially miscible; À, immiscible.
However, many organic solvents used in extractions are known for their volatile, ﬂammable and toxic properties, which clearly go against the ideal of greenness in a given process. Also, water in ionic liquids based on the [PF6] anion results in the release of hydrogen ﬂuoride at high temperatures (> 100 C) . An important parameter that characterizes ILs is their polarity, which has been studied by using several solvatochromic and ﬂuorescent probes (for example Nile Red and Reichardts betaine dye).