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England and Wales, the Workshop of the World, lagged behind, before catching up quickly in the period 1891–1914. While every nation’s educational history has its unique elements, two systematic causal forces emerge from the comparative political economy of mass schooling before 1914 (see Chapter 5 in Volume 1 and Chapter 15 in Volume 2). The first causal force was the spread of voting rights. Abstracting from the specific character of ruling elites, we find a systematic influence of the Findings 25 spread of voting rights upon primary-school enrollments.

Reconciling Europe’s Unemployment with Its Satisfactory Growth Conclusion #8. That large social programs have cost little in practice is consistent with the rise of European unemployment since 1970. Differences in the generosity of social insurance did play a role in the OECD differences in unemployment over time and space, but only a partial role. Furthermore, the loss in output was less severe because those who remained out of work tended to be less productive workers anyway. Therefore any percentage loss of output tends to be much smaller than the percentage of jobs lost.

Neither simple raw correlations nor a careful weighing of the apparent sources of growth shows any clearly negative net effect of all that redistribution. 3 dramatizes the overall puzzle. Nine decades of historical experience fail to show that transferring a larger share of GDP from taxpayers to transfer recipients has a negative correlation with either the level or 18 Growing Public the rate of growth of GDP per person. The average correlation is essentially zero. If we pooled all the decades of international experience, instead of just averaging them, we could find that social transfers had positive correlations with both the level and the growth of GDP per person.

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