By Sarah M. B. Fagan
Ordinary German is spoken through nearly ninety five million humans around the globe. This ebook presents an advent to the linguistic constitution of normal German that's wealthy in descriptive element and level-headed in sleek linguistic idea. It describes the most linguistic gains: the sounds, constitution, and formation of phrases, constitution of sentences, and eaning of phrases and sentences. It surveys the historical past of the language, the key dialects, and German in Austria and Switzerland, in addition to sociolinguistic concerns equivalent to kind, language and gender, formative years language, and English effect on German. past wisdom of German isn't really required, as glosses and translations of the German examples are supplied. every one bankruptcy comprises routines designed to offer the reader functional event in interpreting the language. The booklet is a vital studying instrument for undergraduate and graduate scholars in German and linguistics.
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Additional info for German: A Linguistic Introduction
33 A condition on Velar Spirantization specifies that the rule does not apply to words that contain /x/ in the syllable following /k/. This condition prevents the rule from applying to words like K¨onigreich ‘kingdom’, k¨oniglich ‘royal’, and ewiglich ‘eternally’, which have a /k/ that is realized as [k ] rather than [c¸]: (64) K¨onigreich ‘kingdom’ [k ø…nk ʁac¸] k¨oniglich ‘royal’ [k ø…nk lc¸] ewiglich ‘eternally’ [e…vk lc¸] (cf. ewig ‘eternal’ [e…vc¸]) Words like those in (64) contain [k ] rather than [c¸] because the standard language apparently does not favor two successive syllables ending in [c¸] (Siebs 1969:100).
Schwa is deleted before /m/ only if a fricative precedes schwa: (73) tiefem ‘deep’ /t i…fəm/ → [t i…fm] Cochems ‘Cochem’s’ /k ɔxəms/ → [k ɔxms] bl¨odem ‘stupid’ /plø…təm/ → [plø…təm] (stop precedes schwa) If schwa occurs before /n/, an obstruent (a fricative or a stop) must precede schwa. Thus the conditions on Schwa Deletion before /n/ are less restrictive than those before /m/. (74) reisend ‘travelling’ /razənt/ → [ʁaznt ] Faden ‘thread’ /fa…tən/ → [fa…tn] nehmen ‘to take’ /ne…mən/ → [ne…mən] (nasal precedes schwa) The conditions on Schwa Deletion before /l/ are even less restrictive.
For discussion of additional generalizations that can be made regarding stress assignment in simplex words, see Jessen 1999. 2 Complex words Suffixed words. ) are unstressed and typically do not change the stress pattern of the words to which they are attached. 57 The large majority of derivational suffixes that do not bear stress (or bear secondary stress) are Germanic in origin. These suffixes typically do not affect the stress pattern of the words to which they are attached. (120) "d¨uster ‘gloomy’ "Bruder ‘brother’ "Abend ‘evening’ "Spiegel ‘mirror’ "D¨uster-heit ‘gloominess’ "Bruder-schaft ‘brotherhood’ "abend-lich ‘evening’ "Spiegel-chen ‘little mirror’ (121) be-"greif-en ‘to understand’ "arbeit- ‘work’ be-"greif-Æbar ‘conceivable’ "arbeit-Æsam ‘industrious’ A small number of suffixes that do not bear stress can bring about a change in stress.