By Bradley Ladewig, Muayad Nadhim Zemam Al-Shaeli
This booklet presents a serious, rigorously researched, up to date precis of membranes for membrane bioreactors. It offers a finished and self-contained define of the basics of membrane bioreactors, specifically their relevance as a sophisticated water therapy know-how. This define is helping to deliver the expertise to the readers’ cognizance, and positions the serious subject of membrane fouling as one of many key impediments to its extra widescale adoption. the objective readership comprises researchers and business practitioners with an curiosity in membrane bioreactors.
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Additional resources for Fundamentals of Membrane Bioreactors: Materials, Systems and Membrane Fouling
J Membr Sci 326(2):556–563 Li JF, Xu ZL, Yang H, Yu LY, Liu M (2009b) Effect of TiO2 nanoparticles on the surface morphology and performance of microporous PES membrane. Appl Surf Sci 255(9): 4725–4732 Li Y, Cao C, Chung TS, Pramoda KP (2004) Fabrication of dual-layer polyethersulfone (PES) hollow ﬁber membranes with an ultrathin dense-selective layer for gas separation. J Membr Sci 245(1–2):53–60 Li Y, Chung TS, Xiao Y (2008) Superior gas separation performance of dual-layer hollow ﬁber membranes with an ultrathin dense-selective layer.
B) Precipitation by controlled evaporation: In the early years this technique has been used. In this method, the polymer is dissolved in a mixture of solvent and nonsolvent. Even though, the solvent is more volatile than the nonsolvent, the evaporation step leads to polymer precipitation own to higher nonsolvent content. The structure of membrane prepared by this technique is skinned membranes. (c) Thermal precipitation: Polymeric solution in a mixed or single solvent is cooled to allow phase separation to occur.
2010; Le-Clech et al. 2006b; Shirazi et al. 2010; Wu and Huang 2010b; Wu et al. 2010; Zhang et al. 2011b). It should be noted that although flux decrease is also associated with the phenomenon of concentration polarisation, this is not considered as fouling because it disappears when the ﬁltration process is stopped. 1 Models of Membrane Fouling Membrane fouling can be mainly described either by external fouling or internal fouling. Internal fouling occurs when particles deposit inside the membrane structure, leading to blocked pores partially or completely, reducing the effective pore diameter and even reducing flow through the membrane (Baker 2012; Ma et al.