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By Frank Brescia (Auth.)

Basics of Chemistry: Laboratory Studies

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Length of glass tubing is suitable· for most bends. XIV. Cork Boring Safety. The cork borer must be regarded as a dangerous cutting tool, like a knife or an ice pick. Under no conditions should you use the palm of your hand as the backing or support for a cork being bored. Methods. A cork is bored with one or more holes to receive a glass tube, glass rod, or thermometer. The cork must first be softened by rolling it in a cork softener, a wheel which turns in an eccentric (off-center) track so that the cork is squeezed into the diminishing space between them.

Clamp test tubes and flasks very close to the open ends. Clamp firmly but not with excessive pressure, which may break the glass. (d) When heating a powder which may melt, be sure that the container is tilted so that the melt does not run out. (e) Condensation (liquefaction) of hot vapors may be accomplished by use of the flowing water condenser. The principles to be followed are: the tube which introduces the hot 30 CHEMICAL LABORATORY METHODS vapor should be so attached to the condenser as to prevent escape of the vapor; the cooling water should flow upwards in the condenser to insure, uniform contact with the Fig.

F. Coagulation The settling out of solids, which was necessary before you could decant the liquid in part B, can be speeded up by introducing coagulating reagents to the water. Aluminum sulfate, Ab(S04)a, and calcium hydroxide, Ca(OHh, react to form a precipitate of aluminum hydroxide, AI(OH)3, (,1, indicates a precipitate): AI2(S04h + Ca(OHh ~ AI(OHh~ + CaS04 (unbalanced, see Quest. 6 on Answer Sheet). (soluble) The precipitate is produced as a light, fluffy mass (a FLOCCULANT) with an extremely large surface area that attracts and traps small suspended particles and carries them to the bottom of the container as the precipitate settles.

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