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1996; j Coppola and Starr 1988; k Dillon 1995; l Lodge and Perera 1992; m Pilando and Wrolstad 1992; n Sugiyama et al. 1992; o Durst et al. 1995. a Expressed b FDA ◦ Brix large 3-year study determining the composition of different varieties of apples from different growing regions in the United States was conducted at Cornell University from 1979 to 1981 (Mattick and Moyer 1983). 74◦ for this large sample (n = 93) study. The FDA has established single-strength ◦ Brix values for many fruit juices for purposes of commercial trade and label declaration of the amounts of fruit juice in juice drinks and blended fruit juices (Code of Federal Regulations 2010).

Starch-Derived Sweeteners Starch is the major energy reserve for many plants, and contemporary agriculture has succeeded in efficiently making cornstarch available as an inexpensive food item. The creativity of chemists and engineers has exploited this material to produce a wide variety of food ingredients with different chemical, physical, and functional properties. Corn Syrup Water-insoluble starch granules can be solubilized with mechanical stirring and heat. Traditionally, the solubilized starch was treated with dilute hydrochloric acid under pressure to produce glucose, maltose, and other glucose oligosaccharides.

8 Hydrolysis rates are predictable with furanose linkages being hydrolyzed much faster than pyranose linkages. ␣-Glycosidic linkages are hydrolyzed faster than ␤. Hydrolysis rates of glycosidic linkages occur in the following decreasing order: 1-2 > 1-3 > 1-4 > 1-6. Therefore, one can predict that sucrose (␣-furanose) will be hydrolyzed much easier than maltose (␣-1-4), which undergoes hydrolysis at a faster rate than lactose or cellobiose (both ␤-1-4). It also explains why gentiobiose (␤-1-6) accumulates in corn syrup manufacture.

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