By Gerrit Lohmann (auth.), Robert A. Meyers Ph. D. (eds.)
Extreme Environmental Events is an authoritative unmarried resource for knowing and using the fundamental tenets of complexity and structures thought, in addition to the instruments and measures for interpreting complicated platforms, to the prediction, tracking, and review of significant typical phenomena affecting lifestyles on the earth. those phenomena are frequently hugely damaging, and comprise earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanoes, weather change,, and climate. Early caution, harm, and the fast reaction of human populations to those phenomena also are lined from the perspective of complexity and nonlinear structures. In sixty one authoritative, state-of-the paintings articles, international specialists in each one box observe such instruments and ideas as fractals, mobile automata, solitons online game idea, community conception, and statistical physics to an realizing of those complicated geophysical phenomena.
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Extra resources for Extreme Environmental Events: Complexity in Forecasting and Early Warning
Quat Sci Rev 10:297–317 Berger WH, Labeyrie LD (1987) Abrupt Climatic Change, Evidence and Implications. NATO ASI Series, Series C, Mathematical and Physical Sciences, vol 216. D Reidel, Dordrecht, pp 425 Broecker WS et al (1985) Does the Ocean-atmosphere System Have More than One Stable Mode of Operation? Nature 315:21–26 Bryan F (1986) High Latitude Salinity Effects and Inter-hemispheric Thermohaline Circulations. Nature 323:301–304 Claussen M, Mysak LA, Weaver AJ, Crucifix M, Fichefet T, Loutre M-F, Weber SL, Alcamo J, Alexeev VA, Berger A, Calov R, Ganopolski A, Goosse H, Lohmann G, Lunkeit F, Mokhov II, Petoukhov V, Stone P, Wang Z (2002) Earth System Models of Intermediate Complexity: Closing the Gap in the Spectrum of Climate System Models.
A better understanding of sea-ice and glacier stability, land-surface processes, and atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns is needed. Moreover, to eﬀectively use any additional knowledge of these and other physical processes behind abrupt climate change, more sophisticated ways of assessing their interactions must be developed, including: Better models. At present, the models used to assess climate and its impacts cannot simulate the size, speed, and extent of past abrupt changes, let alone predict future abrupt changes.
The most valuable proxies are those that can be scaled to climate variables, and those where the uncertainty in the proxy can be measured. Proxies that cannot be quantiﬁed in terms of climate or environment are less useful in studying abrupt climate change because the magnitude of change cannot be determined. ). Uncertainties in the proxies, and uncertainties in the dating, are the main reasons that abrupt climate change is one of the more difﬁcult topics in the ﬁeld of paleoclimatology. Example: Glacial-Interglacial Transitions Feedback Astronomical Theory of Ice Ages One particularly convincing example showing that the feedbacks in the climate system are important is the drying of the Sahara about 5000 years before present which is triggered by variations in the Earth’s orbit around the sun.