By Stephen M. Reed, Warwick M. Bayly, Debra C. Sellon
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Extra info for Equine Internal Medicine, 3rd Edition
Thus IgE is the primary antibody responsible for Type I hypersensitivity reactions and appears to play a central role in immunity to parasites. Ig, immunoglobulin. Data from Wagner B. Immunoglobulins and immunoglobulin genes of the horse. Dev Comp Immunol 2006;30:155-164; Lewis MJ, Wagner B, Woof JM. The different effector function capabilities of the seven equine IgG subclasses have implications for vaccine strategies. Mol Immunol 2008;45:818-827; and Wagner B, Miller DC, Lear TL, Antczak DF. The complete map of the Ig heavy chain constant gene region reveals evidence for seven IgG isotypes and for IgD in the horse.
Isotype switching involves the substitution of one heavy chain–constant region in place of another. The genes encoding the five different constant regions of the heavy chain are sequentially arranged on the chromosome (Cδ, Cμ, Cγ, Cε, and Cα). Initially, the first two constant region genes encoding the δ and μ constant regions are used to form the heavy chain. 33 The switch sequences appear to play a role in this rearrangement and may serve as the target for specific recombinases. When switching occurs, a new constant region segment is selected and the intervening genes are removed either by splicing or looping out.
33 The switch sequences appear to play a role in this rearrangement and may serve as the target for specific recombinases. When switching occurs, a new constant region segment is selected and the intervening genes are removed either by splicing or looping out. Isotype switching affects only the heavy chain–constant domains and has no effect on the antigen specificity of the immunoglobulin molecule. 37 The antigen specificity of a particular antibody molecule (and the B cell that produces it) is determined by the combination of the variable domains of the light and heavy chains.