By G. Heldmaier, D. Werner (auth.), Professor Dr. Gerhard Heldmaier, Professor Dr. Dietrich Werner (eds.)
Animals and vegetation dwell in altering environmental stipulations which require edition with a view to do something about this. a few of these environmental alterations function signs that have to be "sensed" and interpreted safely via the organisms to begin the difference. This sign processing is predicated on biochemical, molecular and neuronal strategies that are mentioned during this publication. All examples given underline that non-stop adjustment of physiological capabilities is a vital requirement for all times and survival in advanced altering environments.
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Extra info for Environmental Signal Processing and Adaptation
Glutamine synthetase is enriched in nodules 10- to a 100-fold compared to root cells. The multimeric enzyme uses, besides subunits which are also expressed in root cells, an additional nodule-specific subunit. This is encoded by the gen glnc. This gene is expressed in nodule cells 150- to 750-fold compared to root cells. In the peroxisomes of noninfected cells in soybean a nodule-specific form of uricase (uricase II, nodulin-35) is localized. This protein is involved in the synthesis of allantoin or allantoic acid in determinate nodules.
This symbiotic bacterium degrades the phytoalexin wyerone (a polyacetylene) to wyerol and other metabolites . Rhizobial surface structures such as exopolysaccharides (EPS), lipopolysaccharides (LPS), as well as cyclic glucans play another central role in the interaction of microsymbionts with the plant cells . Mutations in the corresponding genes Communication and Efficiency in the Symbiotic Signal Exchange 23 lead to the development of noninfected nodules or, in the case of Bradyrhizobium japonicum, only to a delayed but a complete nodulation in certain host plants or to a complete inhibition of the development in other host plants [61,62,63,53].
Mol Microbiol 6:3575-3584 34 Communication and Efficiency in the Symbiotic Signal Exchange 42. Sanjuan J, Carlson RW, Spaink HP, Bhat UR, Barbour WM, Glushka J, Stacey G (1992) A 2-0-methylfucose moiety is present in the lipo-oligosaccharide nodulation signal of Bradyrhizobiumjaponicum Proc Nat! Acad Sci USA 89:8789-8793 43. Poupot R, Martinez-Romero E, Prome J-C (1993) Nodulation factors from Rhizobium tropici are sulfated or nonsulfated chitopentasaccharides containing an N-methyl-Nacylglucosamine terminus.