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By H.A. Das

The participation in interlaboratory reviews and using qualified Reference fabrics (CRMs) are largely acknowledged instruments for the verification of the accuracy of analytical measurements and so they shape an essential component of qc platforms utilized by many laboratories, e.g. in accreditation schemes. As a reaction to the necessity to increase the standard of environmental research, the eu fee has been lively long ago fifteen years, via BCR job (now renamed criteria, Measurements and checking out Programme) within the business enterprise of sequence of interlaboratory reviews related to specialist laboratories in a variety of analytical fields (inorganic, hint natural and speciation research utilized to a wide selection of environmental matrices). The BCR and its successor have the duty of assisting ecu laboratories to enhance the standard of measurements in analytical sectors that are very important for the eu Union (biomedical, agriculture, meals, surroundings and industry); those are more often than not performed in help of EC laws, business wishes, exchange, tracking actions (including atmosphere, agriculture, wellbeing and fitness and safeguard) and, extra more often than not, whilst technical problems abate an exceptional comparison of information between EC laboratories. The collaborative tasks performed thus far have positioned the BCR within the place of moment global CRM manufacturer (after NIST within the USA).

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Marchandise, Fresenius. Z Anal. , 326 (1987) 613. 22 Statiomo'~' source enlissions. [ PCDDs/PCDF~', EN 1948-1 (Sampling), EN 1948-2 (Extraction), EN 1948-3 (Identification and quantification), CEN, Brussels, Belgium (1997). fin" use. 1SO 1400 l; Em'h'om~lental otanagement s~'stems General guidelhles on pr#wiples, svstenls am/support#tg techniques, ISO 14004, International Organisation for Standardisation, Gcneva, Switzerland (1996). 1. TOOLS TO ACHIEVE QUALITY Before starting speaking about tools, it must be clarified that the words used are understood and used with their proper meaning.

Total organic carbon, total organic halogens, or fractions of substances such as extractable, leachable and bioavailable fractions of compounds. In other fields, analysts often regret the existence of written standards especially when they are bound to regulations. This situation is encountered for standardised analytical methods that are outdated but still mandatory as the legislation has not been revised. In situations where the state of the art has improved the analyst may be obliged to use old-fashioned methods just for legal reasons.

Trivial terms The selection of an analytical method may also be influenced by external regulatory requirements or by special requests of the customer. The following terms often appear in the analytical jargon and were compiled by Garfield [8]; the classification of methods relies on purpose of the method or the administrative background. g. ). ). Their development leads to a known and stated precision or accuracy. Qualio, in chemical and biological analysis 15 Modified method: reference or standard method which has been modified to simplify or adapt it to the actual state of the art or to other types of samples.

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