By David Dollar, Paul Glewwe, Nisha Agrawal
Within the Nineteen Seventies and early Nineteen Eighties, Vietnam's fiscal functionality was once dismal, and Vietnam was once one of many poorest international locations on the earth. With the adoption of latest market-oriented regulations within the overdue 1980's, fiscal development elevated speedily. Vietnam accomplished a really excessive fee of financial development within the Nineties, averaging eight% in keeping with 12 months from 1990 to 2000. This fiscal development used to be observed via a wide relief in poverty (reduced from fifty eight% in 1993 to 37% in 1998), dramatic raises in class enrollment, and a swift lessen in baby malnutrition.
'Economic development, Poverty, and family Welfare in Vietnam' examines the reasons of Vietnam's financial progress and its customers for destiny progress. It additionally examines the influence of monetary development on poverty, university enrollment, baby wellbeing and fitness, and a number of different socio-economic results. ultimately, it examines the character of poverty and the effect of presidency regulations that try and decrease poverty.
Based on surprisingly wealthy macroeconomic and family survey facts from Vietnam, this booklet is a vital source for improvement practitioners, drawing classes for Vietnam and for different low-income constructing international locations.
Read or Download Economic Growth, Poverty, and Household Welfare in Vietnam (Regional and Sectoral Studies) PDF
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Extra resources for Economic Growth, Poverty, and Household Welfare in Vietnam (Regional and Sectoral Studies)
Nguyen finds that rates of return to education increased in the 1990s, particularly at the upper secondary and postsecondary levels. In contrast, vocational educa tion appears to have no impact on workers’ wages. In chapter 13, Paul Glewwe investigates the determinants of school progress and academic achievement, as measured by test scores, for stu dents in primary and secondary schools. As mentioned above, enrollment rates increased during the 1990s, especially at the secondary level. One of the most interesting and encouraging findings is that enrollment rates in creased much more rapidly for ethnic minority groups than they did for the Kinh, closing much of the gap between the Kinh and the ethnic minorities.
However, significant problems remain. Enrollment gaps between rich and poor continue, and may even have increased, at the secondary and post secondary levels. The quality of education may also vary dramatically, be cause only better-off households can afford to pay for the extra classes and private tutors that compensate for the unusually short school day, which is typically only three or four hours long. The chapter ends with an analysis of An Overview of Economic Growth and Household Welfare in Vietnam in the 1990s 17 the rate of return to education, based on earnings regressions.
This convergence can be seen, for example, among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. The ones that were rela tively poor in 1960 (such as Japan and Italy) grew rapidly in the 1960s and 1970s, but then their growth rates slowed. The growth rate of the productiv ity leader, the United States, has been stable at about 2 percent per capita an nually. As a result of this convergence among OECD economies, the overall growth rate of the rich countries has slowed decade by decade and in the 1990s was at about 2 percent.