By Dev Maulik
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Additional info for Doppler Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
The relation is expressed in the following equation: fmax fpr =2 where fmax is the maximum frequency measurable without ambiguity (Nyquist limit), and fpr is the sampling rate or the pulse repetition frequency. Ambiguity in frequency resolution occurs when the PW Doppler beam interrogates a vessel with such a high blood flow velocity that the maximum frequency content of the Doppler signal exceeds the Nyquist limit. In this circumstance, the frequency cannot be estimated precisely. The frequency component in excess of the limit is subtracted from the Nyquist frequency and is negatively expressed (Fig.
Pulsed-wave Doppler transducer 25 Doppler Sample Volume The three-dimensional region in the path of the transmitted ultrasound beam from which the frequency shift signals are obtained is called the Doppler sample volume (DSV). For the CW Doppler system, the totality of the superimposed region represents the DSV and is therefore of no relevance. For the PW Doppler system, the range-gated zone from which the backscattered echoes are received constitutes the sample volume. The DSV is an important consideration for PW Doppler applications because its location and axial dimension can be controlled by the examiner.
It limits the use of high-frequency transducers for Doppler interrogation of deep vascu- 13 lar structures. These considerations influence the choice of a transducer for a specific use. Thus for Doppler examinations of fetal circulation, a 5-MHz transducer may by less efficient for obtaining adequate signals than a 2-MHz transducer. Doppler Effect The Doppler effect is the phenomenon of observed changes in the frequency of energy wave transmission when relative motion occurs between the source of wave transmission and the observer.