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By Brian Fonseca, Eduardo A. Gamarra (eds.)

With contributions from prime specialists, Culture and nationwide protection within the Americas examines the main influential ancient, geographic, cultural, political, financial, and army issues shaping nationwide safeguard regulations in the course of the Americas. during this quantity, members discover the actors and associations liable for perpetuating safeguard cultures over the years and the adjustments and continuities in modern nationwide safety policies.

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Official actors are those that act in representation of a state, or with statelike authority. They engage with other states or statelike authorities to bring conflict to an end through diplomatic efforts. Therefore, track one diplomacy may take place bilaterally between two states, multilaterally among several states, and even regionally or globally through intergovernmental organizations. Bilateral diplomatic efforts between Russia and Estonia sought to solve the conflict of Russian-speaking minorities, while the OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities held consultations not only with Estonia and Russia, but also with other Baltic states.

Structural causes can include inequality, discrimination, absence or breakdown of the rule of law, unequal access to recourses and services such as education and health care, and poverty. However, the presence of structural causes does not mean that a conflict will ignite. Conflict generally requires a proximate cause as well – a significant change in the situation, such as the emergence of individuals or groups who seek to change the status quo. Proximate causes, then, may differ from structural causes only by degree.

Immediately after the elections and the start of the conflict, the European Union and the United States pressured Kibaki and Obinga to end the fighting. Mediation was attempted by US envoy Jendayi Frazer and Ghanaian president John Kufuor, on behalf of the African Union, and assisted by four former African heads of state and the ambassadors from the United States, Britain, and France. In January 2008, former UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan took over the mediation. His intervention as mediator led to a power-sharing deal between the opposing parties, who in April 2008 formed a coalition government in which Kibaki would be the president and Odinga the prime minister.

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