By Andreas Sedlatschek
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Additional info for Contemporary Indian English: Variation and Change (Varieties of English Around the World General Series)
Spear 1965: 86–7). The Regulating Act of 1773, which installed Warren Hastings as Governor-General, stabilized the situation when it came into force in the following year and has been seen as “the real beginning of British administration in India” (Spear 1965: 88). With the passing of the India Act of 1784, the East India Company was finally under full political control from Britain, with a minister in London and the Governor-General in Calcutta supervising its activities (cf. Spear 1965: 94). In the following years, English acquired importance especially for those Indians who were working for the British administration.
In Krishnaswamy/Burde’s (1998) words, it was also “the restrictedness of the use of English in India” (99) that got stabilized during that period. The use of English saw further consolidation in the domains of education and bureaucracy after 1900. The need for English-speaking Indians continued to surge as the Indian Civil Service, the postal and the railways services expanded (Carls 1987: 121). The number of English-language newspapers was rising further, too, as was the number of their readers.
In his ‘dynamic model of the evolution of new Englishes’, Schneider (2003, 2007) describes the emergence of new varieties of English as a uniform process in five stages: foundation, exonormative stabilization, nativization, endonormative stabilization and differentiation. Schneider describes those stages in terms of the changes in the interaction of the two groups participating in that process – the colonizers (forming the so-called settler or STL strand) and the colonized (forming the so-called indigenous or IDG strand) – and the resulting reconstruction of group identities.