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2 into eq. 5 gives Mdispr = -330 + 2700- 1970-4184 + 2880 = -904 kJ mo1- 1 This is a highly negative ,·alue, which means that the Tl 2+ ion is very unstable in aqueous solution. The main reason is that the hydration enthalpy of the T12+ ion is relatively small, while that of Tl 3 + is high enough to overcome the effect of the third ionization potential. The hydration enthalpy of Tl 2+ is relatively small for a doubly charged cation, because remo\'al of two electrons from the Tl atom does not expose a deeper lying shell and the ionic radius of Tl 2+ thus depends on the large radius of the 6s shell.
Among 5d elements Pt and Au hm·e the s 1 configuration, uncommon in this row. In the second transition series Pd even has the [Kr]4d 10ss0 configmation. l. Shell filling in 20 0 [SC] En1 /eV -5 man~·-clcctron 3d 4s 1 2 0 3d2 4s 1 [Ch. 2 atoms ~ 3d34s 2 4ct45s 1 ~7: 3d -10 3d -15 (a) (b) Fig. 3 Tht: dt:pt:ndern;e of orbital t:nt:rgy on orbital occupation: a) ditfort:nt configurations of the scandium atom (orbital ent:rgies for the 3d 24s 1 configuration are estimated values); b) comparison of vanadium with niobium.
2Mg+aq Affdispr ---~ I Mgo(g) + Mg2+(g) ~--- Mg (s) + Mg2+aq in which the subscripts dispr, atom and hydr denote disproportionation, atomization and hydration, respecth·ely. 2) Strictly LlG "dis r provides the correct measure of the tendency to disproportionate, but Affdispr , Mhydr and Affatom are much more accessible quantities than their Gibbs free energy analogues. Also I is an energy, here equivalent to an enthalpy. Nonetheless Af-fdispr does here provide an acceptable guide. 1 - Factors affecting the stability of Mg+ and Mg2+ ions in aqueous solution.