By Robert Mandel
Few international protection concerns stimulate extra fervent ardour than the appliance of brute strength. regardless of the fierce debate raging approximately it in govt, society and the Academy, insufficient strategic knowing surrounds the difficulty, prompting the pressing want for
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25 Notably, the global community has repeatedly displayed sustained tolerance for state-initiated force, sometimes even providing encouragement to state force initiators. In the end, current global system norms and coercive restraints have been insufficient to prevent (1) major powers from exercising brute force unilaterally in foreign countries and (2) weaker states from exercising brute force unilaterally against segments of their own domestic populations. In particular, in the twenty-first century great powers have not exhibited the peaceful orientation often attributed to them.
This transformation impedes force success. The Westphalian system’s assumptions are that stability derives from the coercive state with its monopoly on instruments of violence used to maintain social order and that, through coercion, a state can suppress the subnational violence that might ensue when those within national territory disruptively compete over scarce resources and thereby eliminate internal fears about individual and group security within a country. The presumed social contract has citizens remaining loyal to the state and continuing to pay taxes in return for state security protection.
99 Force use may be unfocused, with vague or changing mission goals, few exit strategies, and little long-term consideration for postforce impacts. News reporting—whose journalists often misunderstand what they are see or try to erode public support for military operations—may amplify this confusion. Although military operations usually have crystal-clear objectives, force use’s political aims as articulated by politicians often lack sufficient clarity for mission success. 103 This logic has led some analysts to inappropriately take a rigid binary “all-in” or “stay-out” position on force use, choosing between a huge well-armed force with a sustained commitment or no military involvement at all.